Design of Solvent-Assisted SAGD Processes in Heterogeneous Reservoirs Using Hybrid Optimization Techniques
- Muhammad Al-Gosayir (University of Alberta) | Juliana Leung (University of Alberta) | Tayfun Babadagli (University of Alberta)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- November 2012
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 437 - 448
- 2012. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.4.6 Thermal Methods, 5.3.9 Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage, 1.10.1 Drill string components and drilling tools (tubulars, jars, subs, stabilisers, reamers, etc), 5.7.2 Recovery Factors
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Numerous steam-assisted gravity-drainage (SAGD) optimization studies published in the literature combined numerical simulation with graphical or analytical techniques for design and performance evaluation. Efforts have integrated the simulation exercise with global optimization algorithms. Some studies focused on optimization of cumulative steam/oil ratio (cSOR) in SAGD by altering steam-injection rates, while others focused on optimization of net cumulative energy/oil ratio (cEOR) in solvent-additive SAGD by altering injection pressures and fraction of solvent in the injection stream. Several studies also considered total project net-present-value (NPV) calculation by changing total project area, capital-cost intensities, solvent prices, and risk factors to determine the well spacing and drilling schedule. Optimization techniques commonly used in those studies were scattered search, simulated annealing, and genetic algorithm (GA). However, applications of hybrid GA were rarely found.
In this paper, we focused on optimization of solvent-assisted SAGD using various GA implementations. In our models, hexane was selected to be coinjected with steam. The objective function, defined on the basis of cSOR and recovery factor, was optimized by changing injection pressures, production pressures, and injected solvent/steam ratio. Techniques, including orthogonal arrays (OA) for experimental design (e.g., Taguchi's arrays) and proxy models for objective-function (F) evaluations, were incorporated with the GA method to improve computational and convergence efficiency. Results from these hybrid approaches revealed that an optimized solution could be achieved with less central-processing-unit time (e.g., fewer number of iterations) compared with the conventional GA method. Sensitivity analysis was also conducted on the choice of proxy model to study the robustness of the proposed methods.
To investigate the effects of heterogeneity in the design process, optimization of solvent-assisted SAGD was performed on various synthetic heterogeneous reservoir models of porosity, permeability, and shale distributions. Our results highlight the potential application of the proposed techniques in other solvent-enhanced heavy-oil-recovery processes.
|File Size||957 KB||Number of Pages||12|
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