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Frac Packing: Best Practices and Lessons Learned From More Than 600 Operations
- John Weirich (Baker Hughes Incorporated) | Jeff Li (Baker Hughes Incorporated) | Tarik Abdelfattah (Baker Hughes Incorporated) | Carlos A. Pedroso (Petrobras)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Drilling & Completion
- Publication Date
- April 2013
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 119 - 134
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 2.4.6 Frac and Pack, 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant), 2.4.5 Gravel pack design & evaluation, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 3 Production and Well Operations
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Frac packing is a completion technique that merges two distinct processes--hydraulic fracturing and gravel packing. The main challenge of a frac-pack completion is the successful creation of high-conductivity fractures with the tip-screenout (TSO) technique and the placement of proppant within those fractures and in the annulus between the screen and wellbore wall. This is further compounded by having to do so in an ultra high-permeability environment, in which high fluid-leakoff rates are evident. From 1997 to 2006, job data from more than 600 frac-packing operations, representing an estimated 5% of the worldwide total, have been compiled into a database. This paper reviews well information and key frac-packing parameters. Also summarized are engineering implementations and challenges, best practices, and lessons learned. Essential frac-pack design parameters that were attained from the step-rate test (SRT) and minifrac test are evaluated. These include bottomhole pressure, rock-closure time, and fracturing-fluid efficiency. Downhole pressure and temperature are also discussed because of their importance to the post-completion efficiency evaluation and fracturing-fluid-optimization phase. Worldwide case histories are provided that demonstrate how to both deploy different frac-packing systems and pack the wellbore during extreme conditions with improved packing efficiency and a higher chance of success.
Banman, M., Delattre, E., Sofyan, M. et al. 2008. Single-Trip Multi- ZoneGravel Packing—Field Case Study Within Total E&P Indonesie on Handil,Bekapai, and Sisi Nubi Fields. Paper IPTC 12388 presented at the InternationalPetroleum Technology Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 3-5 December. http://dx.doi.org/10.2523/12388-MS.
Bruce, R. and Jacot, R. 2000. The Effect of Fluid Loss During FractureCalibration Tests on the Main Treatment. Paper SPE 65624 presented at the SPEEastern Regional Meeting, Morgantown, West Virginia, 17-19 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/65624-MS.
Cipolla, C.L., Shucart, J.K., and Lafitte, J.R. 2005. Evolution of Frac-packDesign, Modeling, and Execution in the Ceiba Field, Equatorial Guinea. PaperSPE 95514 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition,Dallas, Texas, 9-12 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/95514-MS.
Farias, R., Li, J., Vilela, A. et al. 2007. Openhole Horizontal GravelPacking Offshore Brazil: Best Practices and Lessons Learned From 72 Operations.Paper SPE 107190 presented at the SPE Latin American and Caribbean PetroleumEngineering Conference, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 15-18 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/107190-MS.
Gillespie, G., Angel, K., Cameron, J. et al. 2005. Troika Field: A WellFailure, and Then a Successful Workover. Paper SPE 97291 presented at the SPEAnnual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, Texas, 9-12 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/97291-MS.
Hale, C., Conrad, M., Bose, M. et al. 2004. Is Live Annulus DataInterpretation During Frac-Pack Operations Viable Information? Paper SPE 86461presented at the SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation DamageControl, Lafayette, Louisiana, 18-20 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/86461-MS.
Hannah, R.R., Park, E.I., Porter, D.A. et al. 1994. CombinationFracturing/Gravel-Packing Completion Technique on the Amberjack, MississippiCanyon 109 Field. SPE Prod & Fac 9 (4): 262-266. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/26562-PA.
Hern, G. 2010. Deepwater Wellbore Cleanup System. Paper SPE 137090 presentedat the SPE Deepwater Drilling and Completions Conference, Galveston, Texas, 5-6October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/137090-MS.
Holcomb, W.D., Landry, T.J., Comeaux, B.A. et al. 2002. New TechniqueRestores Initial Fluid Efficiency Observed in Mini-Frac and Results inIncreased TSO Frac-Pack Success. Paper SPE 77775 presented at the SPE AnnualTechnical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 29 September-2October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/77775-MS.
Javora, P.H., Stevens, R., Devine, C. et al. 2006. Deepwater CompletionChallenges Re-Define Best Practices for Completion and Packer Fluid Selection.Paper SPE 103209 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference andExhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 24-27 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/103209-MS.
Joseph, K.P. 2010. Case History: First of Its Kind: Installation of theMultizone Single-Trip (MST) Technology in Deep Water, India. Paper SPE 134084presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Florence,Italy, 19-22 September. http://dx.doi,org/10.2118/134084-MS.
Liu, L., Deng, J., Ma, Y. et al. 2006. Single-Trip, Multiple-Zone FracPacking Offshore Sand Control: Overview of 58 Case Histories. Paper SPE 103779presented at the International Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition in China,Beijing, China, 5-7 December. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/103779-MS.
Malochee, S. and Comeaux, B. 2003. Case Study: Analyzing BottomholeTemperature Gauge Data in Gulf of Mexico Frac Packs to Optimize Fracture FluidCrosslink, Stability, and Break Times. Paper SPE 84215 presented at the SPEAnnual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, 5-8 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/84215-MS.
McLarty, J.M. and DeBonis, V. 1995. Gulf Coast Section SPE ProductionOperations Study Group--Technical Highlights from a Series of Frac-PackTreatment Symposiums. Paper SPE 30471 presented at the SPE Annual TechnicalConference and Exhibition, Dallas, Texas, 22-25 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/30471-MS.
Moreno, B., Haydell, G., and Landry, L. 2009. Critical Data Needs for Designof Frac-Pack Completions in Today's Oilfield Environment. Paper SPE 124389presented at the Offshore Europe Meeting, Aberdeen, UK, 8-11 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/124389-MS.
Neumann, L.F., Pedroso, C.A., Moreira, L. et al. 2002. Lessons Learned froma Hundred Frac Packs in the Campos Basin. Paper SPE 73722 presented at the SPEInternational Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette,Louisiana, 20-21 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/73722-MS.
Norman, D. 2004. Frac-Pack Completion: "Why Has It Become the StandardStrategy for Sand Control?". Paper SPE 101511-DL presented at the SPEDistinguished Lecture 2003-2004.
Ogier, K.S., Haddad, Z., Moreira, O. et al. 2011. The World's DeepestFrac-Pack Completions Utilizing a Single-Trip, Multi-Zone System: A Gulf ofMexico Case Study in the Lower Tertiary Formation. Paper SPE 147313 presentedat the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, 30October-2 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/147313-MS.
Ott, W. and Woods, J. 2003. Modern Sandface Completion PracticesHandbook. World Oil Magazine. Houston, Texas: Gulf PublishingCompany.
Petit, G., Leschi, P., and Dusterhoft, R. 1995. Frac and Pack Stimulation:Application and Field Experience From Hylia Gabon, West Africa. Paper SPE 30115presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference, The Hague, TheNetherlands, 15-16 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/30115-MS.
Pourciau, R.D. 2007. Deepwater Extended-Reach Sand-Control Completions andInterventions. SPE Drill & Compl 22 (2): 157-164. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/98563-PA.
Pourciau, R.D., Fisk, J.H., Descant, F.J. et al. 2005. Completion andWell-Performance Results, Genesis Field, Deepwater Gulf of Mexico. SPE Drill& Compl 20 (2): 147-156. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/84415-PA.
Rovina, P.S., Pedroso, C.E., Coutinho, A.B. et al. 2000. Triple Frac-Packingin an Ultra-deepwater Subsea Well in Roncador Field, Campos Basin--Maximizingthe Production Rate. Paper SPE 63110 presented at the SPE Annual TechnicalConference and Exhibition, Dallas, Texas, 1-4 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/63110-MS.
Sanford, J., Bruton, J., Woomer, J. et al. 2010. Quantitative Frac-PackAnalysis Using Dual Tracer Logs and Downhole Gauges. Paper SPE 137757 presentedat the SPE Deepwater Drilling and Completions Conference, Galveston, Texas, 5-6October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/137757-MS.
Smith, J., Vitthal, S., McGowen, J.M. et al. 2000. How Minifracs AlterLeakoff and Ways to Counteract It. Paper SPE 58767 presented at the SPEInternational Symposium on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana,23-24 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/58767-MS.
Smith, J.E., Meyer, B.R., and Jacot, R.H. 2002. Fracture Pressure-SlopeAnalysis for TSOs in High-Permeability Formations. SPE Prod & Fac 17 (2): 110-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/78149-PA.
Stewart, B.R., Mullen, M.E., Ellis, R.C. et al. 1995. Economic Justificationfor Fracturing Moderate to High-Permeability Formations in Sand ControlEnvironments. Paper SPE 30470 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conferenceand Exhibition, Dallas, Texas, 22-25 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/30470-MS.
Suryanada, S., Wahyudhi, F., Garcia, E. et al. 2010. Saving 70% RigCompletion Time on 13 Multizone Wells With Single-Trip Multizone CompletionSystem in Mahakam Delta Offshore Indonesia. Paper SPE 133409 presented at theSPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Florence, Italy, 19-22September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/133409-MS.
Tiner, R.L., Ely, J.W., and Schraufnagel, R. 1996. Frac Packs—State of theArt. Paper SPE 36456 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference andExhibition, Denver, Colorado, 6-9 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/36456-MS.
Van Sickle, E., Womble, A., and McKown, M. 2006. Achieving Savings inTime-Sensitive Completion Costs: Results from Single-Trip MultizoneFrac-Packing Case Histories. Paper SPE 103184 presented at the SPE AnnualTechnical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 24-27 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/103184-MS.
Vickery, H., Baker, B., Scott, R. et al. 2004. One-Trip Multi-zone FracPacks in Bohai Bay--A Case Study in Efficient Operations. Paper SPE 90173presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston,Texas, 26-29 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/90173-MS.
Vincent, M.C., Pearson, C.M., and Kullman, J. 1999. Non-Darcy and MultiphaseFlow in Propped Fractures: Case Studies Illustrate the Dramatic Effect on WellProductivity. Paper SPE 54630 presented at the SPE Western Regional Meeting,Anchorage, Alaska, 26-27 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/54630-MS.
Vitthal, S. 2003. A Review of Deepwater Completions--Case HistoriesSelection and Emerging Technologies. Paper presented at the DeepwaterTechnology Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 14-17 July.
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