Injection Rates - The Effect of Mobility Ratio, Area Swept, and Pattern
- John C. Deppe (The Atlantic Refining Co.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal
- Publication Date
- June 1961
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 81 - 91
- 1961. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 5.7.2 Recovery Factors, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment
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A method is presented for calculating approximate injection rates in secondary recovery operations. The method can he applied to cases of unequal fluid mobilities, irregular well patterns and boundary patterns.
The steady-state pressure distributions for the four flood patterns reported by Muskat and for five additional patterns reveal that most of the difference in pressure between the injection and producing wells occurs in regions around the wells which can adequately he described as regions of radial flow. This leads to a method of calculating injectivity by approximating the flood pattern with radial flow elements (or a combination of radial- and linear-flow elements for some patterns such as the direct line drive). Irregular and boundary patterns can also be approximated by radial and linear elements.
Each of these elements can be described by radial- and linear-flow equations and the results combined as series flow resistances to give an approximate equation for the initial injection rate. The mobility ratio does not affect the initial rate; therefore, if the well pattern is one of those regular patterns for which theoretical rate equations have been derived for unity mobility ratio, the approximate initial rate equation can be improved by adjusting it to match the theoretical equation. The available theoretical rate equations are listed, including five new cases.
As the flood progresses, the injectivity changes because in general the flood front will divide the pattern into areas of different fluid mobilities. Simple shapes can be assumed for the flood front so that both areas can be divided into radial- and linear-flow elements. Radial- and linear-flow equations are applied to these elements to account for the change in flow resistance behind the front.
To calculate injection rates after breakthrough, it is necessary to know the sweep efficiency at breakthrough. Areal sweep data are available in the literature for a number of patterns, and sufficiently accurate breakthrough sweep efficiency can be estimated from these data if it is not otherwise available.
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