Decreasing Water Invasion Into Atoka Shale Using Nonmodified Silica Nanoparticles
- Jihua Cai (China University of Geosciences) | Martin E. Chenevert (University of Texas at Austin) | Mukul M. Sharma (University of Texas at Austin) | James E. Friedheim (M-I Swaco)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Drilling & Completion
- Publication Date
- March 2012
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 103 - 112
- 2012. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.11 Drilling Fluids and Materials
- pressure penetration test, fluid invasion, permeability, silica nanoparticle, shale
- 8 in the last 30 days
- 1,839 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Fluid penetration from water-based muds into shale formations results in swelling and subsequent wellbore instability. Particles in conventional drilling fluids are too large to seal the nano-sized pore throats of shales and to build an effective mudcake on the shale surface and reduce fluid invasion. This paper presents laboratory data showing the positive effect of adding commercially available, inexpensive, nonmodified silica nanoparticles (NP) (particle sizes vary from 5 to 22 nm) to water-based drilling muds and their effect on water invasion into shale.
Six brands of commercial and nonmodified nanoparticles were tested and screened by running a three-step pressure penetration (PP) test (brine, base mud, nanoparticle mud). Two types of common water-based muds, a bentonite mud and a low-solids mud (LSM), in contact with Atoka shale were studied with and without the addition of 10 wt% nanoparticles. We found that a large reduction in shale permeability was observed when using the muds to which the nonmodified nanoparticles had been added. For the bentonite muds, the permeability of Atoka shale decreased by 57.72 to 99.33%, and, for the LSMs, the permeability of Atoka shale decreased by 45.67 to 87.63%. Higher plastic viscosity (PV) and lower yield point (YP) and fluid loss (FL) of the nanoparticle muds compared with base muds were also observed. We also found that nanoparticles varying in size from 7 to 15 nm and a concentration of 10 wt% are shown to be effective at reducing shale permeability, thereby reducing the interaction between Atoka shale and a water-based drilling fluid.
This study shows for the first time that it is possible to formulate water-based muds using inexpensive nonmodified and commercially available silica nanoparticles and that these muds significantly reduce the invasion of water into the shale. The addition of silica nanoparticles to water-based muds may offer a powerful and economical solution when dealing with wellbore-stability problems in troublesome shale formations.
|File Size||3 MB||Number of Pages||10|
Abrams, A. 1977. Mud Design To Minimize Rock Impairment Due To ParticleInvasion. J Pet Technol 29 (5): 586-592. SPE-5713-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/5713-PA.
Al-Bazali, T.M. 2005. Experimental Study of the Membrane Behavior ofShale during interaction with Water-Based and Oil-Based Muds. PhDdissertation, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas (May 2005).
Al-Bazali, T.M., Zhang, J., Chenevert, M.E., and Sharma, M.M. 2005.Measurement of the Sealing Capacity of Shale Caprocks. Paper SPE 96100presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 9-12October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/96100-MS.
Amanullah, M. and Al-Tahini, A.M. 2009. Nano-Technology--Its Significance inSmart Fluid Development for Oil and Gas Field Application. Paper SPE 126102presented at the SPE Saudi Arabia Section Technical Symposium, AlKhobar, SaudiArabia, 9-11 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/126102-MS.
Carminati, S., Del Gaudio, L., and Brignoli, M. 2000. Shale Stabilisation byPressure Propagation Prevention. Paper SPE 63053 presented at the SPE AnnualTechnical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 1-4 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/63053-MS.
Chenevert, M.E. 1970. Shale Control with Balanced-Activity Oil-ContinuousMuds. J Pet Technol 22 (10): 1309-1316. SPE-2559-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2559-PA.
Chenevert, M.E. and Amanullah, M. 2001. Shale Preservation and TestingTechniques for Borehole-Stability Studies. SPE Drill & Compl 16 (3): 146-149. SPE-73191-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/73191-PA.
Ewy, R.T. and Morton, E.K. 2009. Wellbore-Stability Performance ofWater-Based Mud Additives. SPE Drill & Compl 24 (3):390-397. SPE-116139-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/116139-PA.
Hands, N., Kowbel, K., Maikrans, S., and Nouris, R. 1998. Drill-inFluid Reduces Formation Damage, Increases Production Rates. Oil Gas J.96 (28): 65-69.
Hayatdavoudi, A. and Apande, E. 1986. A Theoretical Analysis Of WellbroreFailure And Stability In Shales. Paper 86-0571 presented at the 27th U.S.Symposium on Rock Mechanics (USRMS), Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA, 23-25 June.
Krishnamoorti, R. 2006. Extracting the Benefits of Nanotechnology for theOil Industry. J Pet Technol 58 (11): Technology Tomorrow,24-26.
Pourafshary, P., Azimipour, S.S., Motamedi, P. et al. 2009. PriorityAssessment of Investment in Development of Nanotechnology in Upstream PetroleumIndustry. Paper SPE 126101 presented at the SPE Saudi Arabia Section TechnicalSymposium, AlKhobar, Saudi Arabia, 9-11 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/126101-MS.
Sensoy, T., Chenevert, M.E., and Sharma, M.M. 2009. Minimizing WaterInvasion in Shales Using Nanoparticles. Paper SPE 124429 presented at the SPEAnnual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 4-7 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/124429-MS.
Steiger, R.P. and Leung, P.K. 1992. Quantitative Determination of theMechanical Properties of Shales. SPE Drill Eng 7 (3):181-185. SPE-18024-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/18024-PA.