Nanoparticle and Microparticle Flow in Porous and Fractured Media--An Experimental Study
- Mohammed N. Alaskar (Stanford University) | Morgan F. Ames (Stanford University) | Steve T. Connor (Stanford University) | Chong Liu (Stanford University) | Yi Cui (Stanford University) | Kewen Li (Stanford University) | Roland N. Horne (Stanford University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- December 2012
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,160 - 1,171
- 2012. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant), 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing
- 4 in the last 30 days
- 1,000 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
The goal of this research was to develop methods for acquiring reservoir pressure and temperature data near the wellbore and farther out into the formation and to correlate such information to fracture connectivity and geometry. Existing reservoir-characterization tools allow pressure and temperature to be measured only at the wellbore. The development of temperature- and pressure-sensitive nanosensors will enable in-situ measurements within the reservoir. This paper provides the details of the experimental work performed in the process of developing temperature nanosensors. The study investigated the parameters involved in the mobility of nanoparticles through porous and fractured media. These parameters include particle size or size distribution, shape, and surface charge or affinity to rock materials.
The principal findings of this study were that spherically shaped nanoparticles of a certain size and surface charge compatible with that expected in formation rock are most likely to be transported successfully, without being trapped because of physical straining, chemical, or electrostatic effects. We found that tin-bismuth (Sn-Bi) nanoparticles of 200 nm and smaller were transported through Berea sandstone. Larger particles were trapped at the inlet of the core, indicating that there was an optimum particle size range. We also found that the entrapment of silver (Ag) nanowires was primarily because of their shape. This conclusion was supported by the recovery of the spherical Ag nanoparticles with the same surface characteristics through the same porous media used during the Ag nanowires injection. The entrapment of hematite nanorice was attributed to its affinity to the porous matrix caused by surface charge. The hematite coated with surfactant (which modified its surface charge to one compatible with flow media) flowed through the glass beads, emphasizing the importance of particle surface charge.
Preliminary investigation of the flow mechanism of nanoparticles through a naturally fractured greywacke core was conducted by injecting fluorescent silica microspheres. We found that silica microspheres of different sizes (smaller than the fracture opening) could be transported through the fracture. We demonstrated the possibility of using microspheres to estimate fracture aperture by injecting a polydisperse microsphere sample. It was observed that only spheres of 20 µm and smaller were transported. This result agreed reasonably well with the measurement of hydraulic fracture aperture (27 µm), as determined by the cubic law.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||12|
Alaskar, M., Ames, M., Horne, R.N., et al. 2010. In-situMultifuction Nanosensors for Fractured Reservoir Characterization. Proc.,Geothermal Resources Council, Sacramento, California, USA, 1-3 February, Vol.34, 1107-1118.
Alaskar, M., Ames, M., Liu, C., Connor, C., Horne, R.N., Li, K.and Cui, Y. 2011. Smart Nanosensors for In-situ Temperature Measurement inFractured Geothermal Reservoir. Transactions, Annual Meeting of the GeothermalResources Council, San Diego, California, Vol. 35.
Alkafeef, S.F., Gochin, R.J., and Smith, A.L. 1999. Measurementof the electrokinetic potential at reservoir rock surfaces avoiding the effectof surface conductivity. Colloids Surf., A 159 (2-3):263-270. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0927-7757(99)00263-0.
Bradford, S.A. and Bettahar, M., 2006. Concentration dependenttransport of colloids in saturated porous media. J. of ContaminantHydrology 82: 99 - 117.
Chen, H., Li, Z., Wu, Z. et al. 2005. A novel route to prepare andcharacterize Sn-Bi nanoparticles. J. Alloys Compd. 394(1-2): 282-285. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2004.10.044.
Cumbie, D.H. and McKay, L.D. 1999. Influence of diameter on particletransport in a fractured shale saprolite. J. Contam. Hydrol.37 (1-2):139-157. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0169-7722(98)00156-9.
Derjaguin, B.V. and Landau, L.D. 1941. Theory of the stabilityof strongly charged lyophobic sols and the adhesion of strongly chargedparticles in solutions of electrolytes. Acta Physicochimica URSS 14: 633-662.
Dongjo Kim, Sunho Jeong, and Moon, J. 2006. Synthesis of silvernanoparticles using the polyol process and the influence of precursorinjection. Nanotechnology 17 (16): 4019-4024. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0957-4484/17/16/004.
Grabbe, A. and Horn, R.G. 1993. Double-Layer and HydrationForces Measured between Silica Sheets Subjected to Various Surface Treatments.J. Colloid Interface Sci. 157 (2): 375-383. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jcis.1993.1199.
Gregory, J. 1981. Approximate expressions for retarded van der waalsinteraction. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 83 (1): 138-145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9797(81)90018-7.
Hogg, R., Healy, T.W., and Fuerstenau, D.W. 1966. Mutual coagulation ofcolloidal dispersions. Trans. Faraday Soc. 62:1638-1651.
Israelachvili, J.N. 1992. Intermolecular and Surface Forces. London:Academic Press.
Kanj, M.Y., Funk, J.J., and Al-Yousif, Z. 2009. NanofluidCoreflood Experiments in the ARAB-D. Presented at the SPE Saudi Arabia SectionTechnical Symposium, AlKhobar, Saudi Arabia, 9-11 May. SPE-126161-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/126161-ms.
Liu, D., Johnson, P.R., Elimelech, M., 1995. Colloid depositiondynamics in flow-through porous media: role of electrolyte concentration.Environ. Sci. Technol. 29 (12), 2963- 2973.
Lu, Y., Yin, Y., Mayers, B.T. et al. 2002. Modifying the Surface Propertiesof Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles through A Sol-Gel Approach.Nano Lett. 2 (3): 183-186. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nl015681q.
Ozaki, M., Kratohvil, S., and Matijevic, E. 1984. Formation of monodispersedspindle-type hematite particles. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 102 (1): 146-151. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9797(84)90208-x.
Poulton, S.W. and Raiswell, R. 2005. Chemical and physical characteristicsof iron oxides in riverine and glacial meltwater sediments. Chem. Geol. 218 (3-4): 203-221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2005.01.007.
Reimus, P.W. 1995. The use of synthetic colloids in tracer transportexperiments in saturated rock fractures. PhD Thesis, University of New Mexico,Albuquerque, New Mexico (August 1995).
Sun, Y., Yin, Y., Mayers, B.T. et al. 2002. Uniform Silver NanowiresSynthesis by Reducing AgNO3 with Ethylene Glycol in the Presence of Seeds andPoly(Vinyl Pyrrolidone). Chem. Mater. 14 (11): 4736-4745.http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cm020587b.
Tan, Y., Gannon, J.T., Baveye, P., Alexander, M., 1994.Transport of bacteria in an aquifer sand: experiments and model simulations.Water Resour. Res. 30 (12), 3243- 3252.
Tipping, E. 1981. The adsorption of aquatic humic substances by iron oxides.Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 45 (2): 191-199. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(81)90162-9.
Tipping, E. and Cooke, D. 1982. The effects of adsorbed humic substances onthe surface charge of goethite (a-FeOOH) in freshwaters. Geochim. Cosmochim.Acta 46 (1): 75-80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(82)90292-7.
Verwey, E.J. and Overbeek, J.T.G. 1948. Theory of theStability of Lyophobic Colloids. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Wang, H., Brandl, D.W., Le, F. et al. 2006. Nanorice: A Hybrid PlasmonicNanostructure. Nano Lett. 6 (4): 827-832. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nl060209w.