Transient-Nonisothermal-Multiphase-Wellbore-Model Development With Phase Change and Its Application to Producer Wells
- Deming Mao (Shell Exploration and Production Company) | Albert Harvey (Shell Exploration and Production Company)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- March 2013
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,169 - 1,180
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 5.2.2 Fluid Modeling, Equations of State, 5.4.6 Thermal Methods
- 3 in the last 30 days
- 284 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
This paper focuses on modeling nonisothermal multiphase outflow of high-temperature producer wells in Shell's in-situ-upgrading process (IUP).Subsurface heating and in-situ upgrading of bitumen involves installing heaters into the subsurface and raising reservoir temperatures to higher than 325°C. Consequently, flow conditions at the wellhead and along the tubing for atypical IUP producer well exceed pressure and temperature ratings of conventional equipment, particularly during peak production periods. Thus, the ability to reasonably predict pressure and temperature along the wellbore over the entire production cycle is important for designing IUP production wells and associated production facilities. A nonisothermal multiphase computational model has been developed for predicting the performance of IUP producer wells.
Complex multiphase transport phenomena occur inside an IUP producer wellduring the production of high-temperature, upgraded hydrocarbon products. These include gas/oil/water three-phase flow; turbulent convective heat transfer between the tubing wall and the surrounding formation; pressure drop along thewellbore caused by gravity, friction, and acceleration; and phase changes caused by condensation and evaporation caused by variations in pressure and temperature along the well. These processes are strongly coupled, and accurate analysis demands a coupled modeling approach. Pressure and temperature variations result in changes in mass density and velocity, which have a significant influence on convective-heat-transfer rates. Mass-flow rates in the wellbore vary significantly with time because of production requirements during the life of a producer well (5 to 8 years). Long durations of high production rates can raise the temperature of the wellbore in the overburden and lower overall heat-loss rates. Sustained periods of low or no flow can cause the wellbore to cool and result in different flow and heat-transfer characteristics upon reopening of the well. Therefore, conductive time scales in the near-well formation are important to accurately predict flow tubing temperatures and pressures.
An advanced wellbore model is developed for coupling the multiphase flow, heat transfer, and phase change phenomena in a high-temperature, unconventional oil producer well. Vapor/liquid/liquid (VLL) three-phase flash calculations are used to describe phase condensation and evaporation caused by changes in temperature and pressure along the wellbore. The model is formulated by use of k-values that are consistent with the CMG STARS reservoir model (STARS 2007) used for thermal simulation of Shell's IUP process. The drift-flux model is used to describe gas/liquid two-phase flow, and multiple transient energyequations are used for the wellbore, casing strings, and surrounding formation.The overall pressure gradient in the two-phase flow is formulated as the sum of gravitational, friction, and acceleration components. All transport equations are implicitly coupled for stable efficient transient calculations.
The model is validated with published data and simplified analytical solutions for limiting flow conditions. Computational results are compared with data from an IUP producer well in the oil sands of Alberta, Canada. Reasonable temperature and pressure matches were obtained, demonstrating that the model can predict transient and axial profiles of pressure, temperature, phase volume fraction, phase mass density, and component composition in a high-temperature flowing producer well during the entire production cycle.
|File Size||925 KB||Number of Pages||12|
Bahonar, M., Azaiez, J., and Chen, Z. 2011. Transient Nonisothermal FullyCoupled Wellbore/Reservoir Model for Gas-Well Testing, Part 1: Modelling. J.Cdn. Pet. Tech. 50 (9): 37-50. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/149617-PA.
Beckwith, R. 2012. The Tantalizing Promise of Oil Shale. J. Pet Tech 64 (1): 30-36.
Bunz, A.P., Dohrn, R., and Prausnitz, J.M. 1991. Three-Phase FlashCalculations for Multicomponent Systems. Comput. Chem. Eng. 15 (1): 47-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0098-1354(91)87005-T.
Chen, N.H. 1979. An Explicit Equation for Friction Factor in Pipe.Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundamen. 18 (3): 296-297. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/i160071a019.
Chien, H.H. 1994. Formulations for Three-Phase Flash Calculations. AIChEJ. 40 (6): 957-965. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aic.690400607.
Churchill, S.W. and Chu, H.H.S. 1975. Correlating Equations for Laminar andTurbulent Free Convection from a Horizontal Cylinder. Int. J. Heat MassTran. 18 (9): 1049-1053. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0017-9310(75)90222-7.
Danesh, A. 2007. PVT and Phase Behavior of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids,Volume 47 (Developments in Petroleum Science). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Dong, C.C., Bahonar, M., Chen, Z., et al. 2010. A Multi-Segment MultiphaseWellbore Model Associated with Dynamic Gridding. Paper SPE 131019 presented atthe International Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition in China, Beijing,China, 8-10 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/131019-MS.
Fairuzov, Y.V., Gonzalez Guevara, J., Lobato Barradas, G., et al. 2002. ALumped-Parameter Model for Transient Two-Phase Gas-Liquid Flow in a Wellbore.SPE Prod & Fac 17 (1): 36-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/75453-PA.
Fan, Y., Durlofsky, L.J., and Tchelepi, H.A. 2010. Numerical Simulation ofthe In-Situ Upgrading of Oil Shale. SPE J. 15 (2): 368-381.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/118958-PA.
Fowler, T.F. and Vinegar, H.J. 2009. Oil Shale ICP - Colorado Field Pilots.Paper SPE 121164 presented at SPE Western Regional Meeting, San Jose,California, 24-26 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/121164-MS.
Green, D. W. and Perry, R.H. 2008. Heat and Mass Transfer. In Perry'sChemical Engineers' Handbook, 8th Edition, 5-17. New York:McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Hasan, A.R. and Kabir, C.S. 1994. Aspects of Wellbore Heat Transfer DuringTwo-Phase Flow. SPE Prod & Fac 9 (3): 211-216. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/22948-PA.
Hasan, A.R. and Kabir, C.S. 2002. Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer inWellbores, 21. Richardson, Texas: SPE.
Hasan, A.R. and Kabir, C.S. 2007. A Simple Model for Annular Two-Phase Flowin Wellbores. SPE Prod & Oper 22 (2): 168-175. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/95523-PA.
Hasan, A.R., Kabir, C.S., and Sayarpour, M. 2007. A Basic Approach toWellbore Two-Phase Flow Modeling. Paper SPE 109863 presented at the SPE AnnualTechnical Conference and Exhibition, Anaheim, California, 11-14 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/109868-MS.
Hasan, H.R., Kabir, C.S., and Wang, X. 1998. Wellbore Two-Phase Flow andHeat Transfer During Transient Testing. SPE J. 3 (2):174-180. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/38946-PA.
Hasan, A.R., Kabir, C.S. and Wang, X. 2009. A Robust Steady-State Model forFlowing-Fluid Temperature in Complex Wells. SPE Prod & Oper 24 (2): 269-276. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/109765-PA.
Hibiki, T. and Ishii, M. 2002. Distribution Parameter and Drift FluxVelocity of Drift-Flux Model in Bubbly Flow. Int. J. Heat Mass Tran. 45 (4): 707-721. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0017-9310(01)00195-8.
Hibiki, T. and Ishii, M. 2003. One-Dimensional Drift-Flux Model andConstitutive Equations for Relative Motion Between Phases in Various Two-PhaseFlow Regimes. Int. J. Heat Mass Tran. 46 (25): 4935-4948.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0017-9310(03)00322-3.
Incropera, F.P. and DeWitt, D.P. 1985. Introduction to Heat Transfer.Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Kabir, C.S. and Hasan, H.R. 1990. Performance of a Two-Phase Gas/Liquid FlowModel in Vertical Wells. J. Petrol. Sci. Eng. 4 (3):273-289. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0920-4105(90)90016-V.
Livescu, S., Durlofsky, L.J., Aziz, K., et al. 2008. Application of a NewFully-Coupled Thermal Multiphase Wellbore Flow Model. Paper SPE 113215presented at the SPE/DOE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, Oklahoma,20-23 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/113215-MS.
Livescu, S., Durlofsky, L.J., Aziz, K., et al. 2010a. A Fully-CoupledThermal Multiphase Wellbore Flow Model for Use in Reservoir Simulation. J.Petrol. Sci. Eng. 71 (3): 138-146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2009.11.022.
Livescu, S., Durlofsky, L.J., and Aziz, K. 2010b. A Semianalytical ThermalMultiphase Wellbore-Flow Model for Use in Reservoir Simulation. SPE J. 15 (3): 794-804. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/115796-PA.
Manabe, R. 2001. A Comprehensive Mechanistic Heat Transfer Model forTwo-Phase Flow with High-Pressure Flow Pattern Validation. PhD dissertation,University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma (2001).
Manabe, R., Wang, Q., Zhang, H.-Q., et al. 2003. A Mechanistic Heat TransferModel for Vertical Two-Phase Flow. Paper SPE 84226 presented at SPE AnnualTechnical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, 5-8 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/84226-MS.
Mao, D. and Harvey, A.D. 2009. Transient Non-Isothermal Multiphase WellboreModel Development with Phase Change and Its Application to In-Situ ProducerWells. Internal Report XX, Shell (2009).
McBride, B.J., Gordon, S., and Reno, M.A. 1993. Coefficents of CalculatingThermodynamic and Transport Properties of Individual Species. TechnicalMemorandum 4513, NASA, Cleveland, Ohio (October 1993).
Michel, G. and Civan, F. 2008. Modeling Nonisothermal Rapid Multiphase Flowin Wells Under Nonequilibrium Conditions. SPE Prod & Oper 23 (2): 1251-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/102231-PA.
Nelson, P.A. 1987. Rapid Determination in Multiple-Phase Flash Calculations.Comput. Chem. Eng. 11 (6): 5815-91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0098-1354(87)87004-7.
Oddie, G., Shi, H., Durlofsky, L.J., et al. 2003. Experimental Study of Twoand Three Phase Flows in Large Diameter Inclined Pipes. Int. J. Multiphas.Flow 29 (4): 527-558. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0301-9322(03)00015-6.
Pourafshary, P., Varavei, A., Sepehrnoori, K., et al. 2008. A CompositionalWellbore/Reservoir Simulator to Model Multiphase Flow and TemperatureDistribution. Paper SPE 12115 presented at International Petroleum TechnologyConference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 3-5 December. http://dx.doi.org/10.2523/12115-MS.
Redlich, O. and Kwong, J.N.S. 1949. On the Thermodynamics of Solutions: AnEquation of State: Fugacities of Gaseous Solutions. Chem. Rev. 44 (1): 233-244. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cr60137a013.
Semenova, A., Livescu, S., Durlofsky, L.J., et al. 2010. Modeling ofMultisegmented Thermal Wells in Reservoir Simulation. Paper SPE 130371presented at SPE EUROPEC/EAGE Annual Conference and Exhibition, Barcelona,Spain, 14-17 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/130371-MS.
Shi, H., Holmes, J.A., Diaz, L.R., et al. 2005a. Drift-Flux Parameters forThree-Phase Steady-State Flow in Wellbores. SPE J. 10 (2):130-137. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/89836-PA.
Shi, H., Holmes, J.A., Durlofsky, J.J., et al. 2005b. Drift-Flux Modeling ofTwo-Phase Flow in Wellbores. SPE J. 10 (1): 24-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/84228-PA.
Wang, Z. and Horne, R.N. 2011. Analyzing Wellbore Temperature DistributionsUsing Nonisothermal Multiphase Flow Simulation. Paper SPE 144577 presented atSPE Western North American Region Meeting, Anchorage, Alaska, 7-11 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/144577-MS.
Zhang, H.Q., Wang, Q., Sarica, C., et al. 2006. Unified Model of HeatTransfer in Gas/Liquid Pipe Flow. SPE Prod & Oper 21(1): 114-122. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/90459-PA.