Detection and Estimation of Dead-End Pore Volume in Reservoir ROCK by Conventional Laboratory Tests
- I. Fatt (U. Of California) | M. Maleki (U. Of California) | R.N. Upadhyay (U. Of California)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal
- Publication Date
- September 1966
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 206 - 212
- 1966. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.8.7 Carbonate Reservoir, 5.6.2 Core Analysis, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 5.5.2 Core Analysis, 1.14 Casing and Cementing, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 5.3.2 Multiphase Flow, 5.6.1 Open hole/cased hole log analysis
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Conventional laboratory core analysis tests on samples of two limestone reservoir rocks indicate that about 20 per cent of PV is in dead-end pores. These tests (electric logging formation factor. mercury injection capillary pressure and miscible displacement) were carried out on 3/4-in. diameter test plugs. Test results show a clear difference between these samples and sandstone or homogeneous limestone reservoir rock. Although the amount of dead-end pore space can be only roughly estimated, the presence of such pore space seems clearly indicated. Pressure transient studies also show presence of dead-end PV. Although they do not give quantitative results, pressure transient data yield a reasonable estimate of the size of the neck connecting dead-end pores to the main flow channels.
Equations conventionally used to describe reservoir flow behavior contain the implicit assumption that all connected pore spaces contributed to both porosity and permeability. Several authors have pointed out the changes in pressure transient behavior and in electric log interpretation that may result if this assumption is incorrect and, instead, dead-end or cul-de-sac pores are present. There is a need for laboratory tests that can detect presence of dead-end pores in core samples. With such information on hand the petroleum engineer can make more rational use of the mathematical tools now available for analysis of reservoir flow behavior. This paper describes laboratory studies designed to detect and, if possible, give a quantitative measure of dead-end PV in laboratory-size core plugs. Three reservoir rocks were used, two of which were limestones suspected of having dead- end pore spaces and a well-known sandstone, used as a comparison standard, in which there is believed to be little or no dead-end pore space. All the studies were designed to measure the natural dead-end PV; i.e., the pore space which is dead-ended because of rock structure. During multiphase flow in a rock without dead-end pores, some parts of one of the phases can become surrounded by the other, thereby giving (for certain flow behavior) an effective dead-end PV 8,9. Such behavior will not be described here.
One of the simplest laboratory measurements which can be made on core plugs is the electric logging formation factor F. By definition:
where Ro is the resistivity of the core plug saturated with a saline solution of resistivity Rw. Difficulties in using this definition of F may arise when the solid framework of the rock is electrically conducting. These difficulties may be largely circumvented by using a highly conducting saline solution so that the conduction contribution of the solid is negligible. There are no useful theoretical relationships between F and the porosity phi. A widely used empirical relation is the one given by Archie:
where m, called the cementation factor, is expected to be a constant for a given type of rock. Pirson shows that for reservoir rocks, m varies from about 1.3 for loosely cemented sandstones to 2.2 for highly cemented sandstones or carbonate rocks.
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