- Boolean operators
- This OR that
This AND that
This NOT that
- Must include "This" and "That"
- This That
- Must not include "That"
- This -That
- "This" is optional
- This +That
- Exact phrase "This That"
- "This That"
- (this AND that) OR (that AND other)
- Specifying fields
- publisher:"Publisher Name"
author:(Smith OR Jones)
Effect of Interfacial Tension on Water/Oil Relative Permeability on the Basis of History Matching to Coreflood Data
- Edwin A. Chukwudeme (Husky Energy) | Ingebret Fjelde (IRIS) | Kumuduni P. Abeysinghe (Agility Group) | Arild Lohne (IRIS)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- February 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 37 - 48
- 2014.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant), 6.5.2 Water use, produced water discharge and disposal, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 5.3.4 Reduction of Residual Oil Saturation, 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 5.4.7 Chemical Flooding Methods (e.g., Polymer, Solvent, Nitrogen, Immiscible CO2, Surfactant, Vapex), 4.3.4 Scale, 5.5.8 History Matching,
- capillary desaturation curves, low interfacial tension, relative permeability, capillary end effects, wettability
- 16 in the last 30 days
- 729 since 2007
- Show more detail
The effect of interfacial tension (IFT) on the displacement of the nonwetting and wetting phases has been investigated by the use of simulations/history matching of flooding experiments. In surfactant flooding, a conventional assumption is to neglect the effect of capillary pressure (Pc) on measured two-phase properties. The methodology applied in this paper allows improved interpretation of experimental results by correcting for the influence of capillary end effects on the measured capillary desaturation curve (CDC) and on the estimated relative permeability (kr). Three fluid systems of different IFTs were prepared by use of a solvent system (CaCl2 brine/iso-octane/isopropanol) rather than a surfactant system with the assumption that both systems have similar flood behavior at reduced IFT. Three coreflood cycles, including multirate oil injection (drainage) followed by multirate water injection (imbibition), were carried out at each IFT in water-wet Berea cores. The kr functions corrected for capillary end effects were derived by numerically history matching the experimental production and pressure-drop (PD) history. A typical CDC is observed for the nonwetting phase oil, with a roughly constant plateau in residual oil saturation (ROS), Sor, below a critical capillary number (Ncc) and a declining slope above Ncc toward zero Sor. No influence of Pc was found for the nonwetting phase CDC. The results from the displacement of the wetting phase formed an apparent CDC with a declining slope and no Ncc. Analyzing the wetting-phase results, we find that the wetting-phase CDC is not a true CDC. First, it is a plot of the average remaining water saturation (Sw) in the core which, in all the experiments, is higher than residual water saturation, Swr, obtained from Pc measurements. Second, we find that the remaining Sw is only partly a function of Nc. At low Nc, the water production (WP) is limited by capillary end effects. Rate-dependent WP observed with the high- IFT system is fully reproduced in simulations by use of constant kr and Pc. The remaining wetting-phase saturation at a low capillary number (Nc) is a result of the core-scale balance between viscous and capillary forces and would, for example, depend on the core length. At a higher Nc, the WP is found to be limited by the low kr tail, typical for wetting phases. However, we find that the kr functions become rate dependent at a higher Nc, and we assume that this rate dependency can be modeled as a function of Nc. The remaining wetting-phase saturation at a higher Nc would then be a function of Nc and the number of pore volumes (PVs) injected. The observed Nc dependency in the flow functions indicates a potential for the accelerated production of the wetting phase by use of surfactant. Assuming that the results obtained here for the wetting phase also apply to oil in a mixed-wet system, it is strongly recommended to evaluate the effect of both Pc and Ncc when designing a surfactant model for a mixed-wet field.
Al-Wahaibi, Y.M., Grattoni, C.A., and Muggeridge, A.H. 2006. Drainage and Imbibitions Relative Permeabilities at Near Miscible Conditions. J. Pet. Sci. & Eng. 53 (3–4): 239–253. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2006.06.005.
Amaefule, J.O. and Handy, L.L. 1982. The Effect of Interfacial Tensions on Relative Oil/Water Permeabilities of Consolidated Porous Media. SPE J. 22 (3): 371–381. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/9783-PA.
Bardon, C. and Longeron, D.G. 1980. Influence of Very Low Interfacial Tensions on Relative Permeability. SPE J. 20 (5): 391–401. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/7609-PA.
Bartley, J.T. and Ruth, D.W. 2001. Relative Permeability Analysis of Tube Bundle Models, Including Capillary Pressure. Transp. Porous Media 45 (3): 445–478. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1012297432745.
Blom, S.M.P., Hagoort, J., and Soetekouw, D.P.N. 2000. Relative Permeability at Near Critical Conditions. SPE J. 5 (2): 172–181. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/62874-PA.
Chatzis, I. and Morrow, N.R. 1984. Correlation of Capillary Number Relationships for Sandstone. SPE J. 24 (5): 555–562. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/10114-PA.
Computer Modelling Group (CMG). STARS simulator, Version 2009.10.
Delshad, M., Delshad, M., Bhuyan, D. et al. 1986. Effect of Capillary Number on the Residual Saturation of a Three-Phase Micellar Solution. Paper SPE/DOE 14911 presented at the 5th Symposium on Enhanced Oil recovery of the SPE and the Department of Energy, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 20–23 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/14911-MS.
Fulcher, R.A., Ertekin, T., and Stahl, C.D. 1985. Effect of Capillary Number and Its Constituents on Two-Phase Relative Permeability Curves. J. Pet Tech 37 (2): 249–260. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/12170-PA.
Garnes, J.M., Mathisen, A.M., Scheie, A. et al. 1990. Capillary Number Relations for Some North Sea Reservoir Sandstones. Paper SPE/DOE 20264 presented at the SPE/DOE 7th Symposium on EOR, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 22–25 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/20264-MS.
Gilliland, H.E. and Conley, F.R. 1975. Surfactant Waterflooding. Paper presented at the 9th World Petroleum Congress, Tokyo Japan, 11–16 May.
Gupta, S.P. and Trushenski, S.P. 1979. Micellar Flooding—Compositional Effects on Oil Displacement. SPE J. 19 (2): 116–128. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/7063-PA.
Harbert, L.W. 1983. Low Interfacial Tension Relative Permeability. Paper SPE 12171 presented at the 58th Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Francisco, California, 5–8 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/12171-MS.
Heaviside, J. and Black, C.J.J. 1983. Fundamentals of Relative Permeability: Experimental and Theoretical Considerations. Paper SPE 12173 presented at the 58th Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Francisco, California, 5–8 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/12173-MS.
Huang, D.D. and Honarpour, M.M. 1996. Capillary End Effects in Coreflood Calculations. Paper 9634 presented at the International Symposium of the Society of Core Analysts, Montpellier, France, 8–10 September.
Johnson, E.F., Bossler, D.P., and Naumann, V.O. 1959. Calculation of Relative Permeability From Displacement Experiments. Petroleum Trans., AIME 216: 370–372.
Kalaydjian, F.J-M. 1992. Dynamic Capillary Pressure Curve for Water/Oil Displacement in Porous Media: Theory vs. Experiment. Paper SPE 24813 presented at the 67th Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, Washington, DC, 4–7 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/24813-MS.
Lake, L.W. 1989. Enhanced Oil Recovery, 43–77. Englewood Cliffs: New Jersey Prentice-Hall.
Lefebvre du Prey, E.J. 1973. Factors Affecting Liquid-Liquid Relative Permeabilities of a Consolidated Porous Medium. SPE J. 13 (1): 39–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/3039-PA.
Leverett, M.C. 1941. Capillary Behavior in Porous Solids. Trans. AIME 142: 152–169.
Lomeland, F., Ebeltoft, E., and Thomas, W.H. 2005. A New Versatile Relative Permeability Correlation. Paper presented at the International Symposium of the Society of Core Analysts, Toronto, Canada, 21–25 August.
Marle, C.M. 1991. Oil Entrapment and Mobilization. In Basic Concepts in Enhanced Oil Recovery Processes, ed. M. Baviere, Chap. 1, 10–37. Critical Reports on Applied Chemistry Vol. 33, Elsevier Applied Science London and New York.
Mohanty, K.K. and Miller, M.A. 1991. Factors Influencing Unsteady Relative Permeability of a Mixed-Wet Reservoir Rock. SPE Form Eval 6 (3): 349–358. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/18292-PA.
Mohanty, K.K. and Salter, S.J. 1983. Multiphase Flow in Porous Media: III. Oil Mobilization, Transverse Dispersion, and Wettability. Paper SPE 12127 presented at the 58th Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Francisco, California, 5–8 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/12127-MS.
Morrow, N.R., Chatzis, I., and Taber, J.J. 1988. Entrapment and Mobilization of Residual Oil in Bead Packs. SPE Res Eng 3 (3): 927–934. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/14423-PA.
Rapoport, L.A. and Leas, W.A. 1953. Properties of Linear Water Floods. Trans. AIME 198: 139–148.
Schlumberger. ECLIPSE 100 simulator, Version 2009.1.
SENDRA. Simulator User Guide, Version 2009.1, www.sendra.no (downloaded 20 December 2010).
Virnovsky, G.A. 1984. Determination of Relative Permeabilities in a Three-Phase Flow in a Porous Medium. Translated from Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Mekhanika Zhidkosti I Gaza, 5, 187–189, September–October copyright 1985, Plenum Publishing Corporation.
Virnovsky, G.A., Vatne, K.O., Skjæveland, S.M. et al. 1998. Implementation of Multirate Technique To Measure Relative Permeabilities Accounting for Capillary Effects. SPE 49321 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, 27–30 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/49321-MS.
Virnovsky, G.A., Friis, H.A., and Lohne, A. 2004. A Steady-State Upscaling Approach for Immiscible Two-Phase Flow. Transp. in Porous Media 54 (2): 167–192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1026363132351.
Not finding what you're looking for? Some of the OnePetro partner societies have developed subject- specific wikis that may help.
The SEG Wiki
The SEG Wiki is a useful collection of information for working geophysicists, educators, and students in the field of geophysics. The initial content has been derived from : Robert E. Sheriff's Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied Geophysics, fourth edition.