Damage Mechanisms in Unconventional-Gas-Well Stimulation--A New Look at an Old Problem
- Josef R. Shaoul (StrataGen Delft) | Lars F. van Zelm (TU Delft) | C.J. de Pater (StrataGen Delft)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- November 2011
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 388 - 400
- 2011. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 1.8.5 Phase Trapping, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 4.3.4 Scale, 1.8 Formation Damage, 1.2.2 Geomechanics, 5.3.2 Multiphase Flow, 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant), 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 5.8.1 Tight Gas, 5.6.4 Drillstem/Well Testing, 3 Production and Well Operations, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.1.1 Exploration, Development, Structural Geology, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 1.2.3 Rock properties, 5.1.5 Geologic Modeling, 5.8.7 Carbonate Reservoir, 2.5.1 Fracture design and containment, 5.5.3 Scaling Methods, 4.6 Natural Gas, 5.5.8 History Matching, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment
- tight-gas, fracture performance evaluation, unconventional gas, rel-perm jail
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- 1,188 since 2007
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After fracture stimulation, production often rises slowly instead of showing an early transient. This indicates either severe reduction in fracture conductivity or reservoir damage. There is still no agreement in the industry about the most important damage mechanisms. Work performed by Pratts and Holditch in the 1970s showed that fracture-face damage from filtrate invasion is unimportant unless there is permeability damage in the invaded zone of at least 99%. New ideas have been proposed that may better explain the behavior commonly seen in actual production data. These ideas include relative permeability with water and gas both immobile at a given saturation ("permeability jail"), small-scale reservoir heterogeneity, and stress-sensitive-matrix permeability at high drawdown.
Experience from the field has been contradictory. Sometimes no water is produced back, but gas production does not appear to suffer. In other cases, the gas rate is significantly lower than expected, but significant fracture fluid is recovered. With the inherent coupling of fracture length and permeability in well-test interpretation and the practical impossibility of achieving radial flow in tight-gas reservoirs with large fracture lengths, it has been difficult to prove any theory about the cause of poor performance from tight gas fracture treatments. This paper shows simulation results of these effects on post-fracture production from an unconventional (0.001-md) gas well. Furthermore, realistic assumptions about proppant-pack cleanup show a connection not only between poor cleanup and short effective fracture length, but also reduction in contacted kh and connected reservoir volume. New reservoir-simulation results are presented that show a 50% reduction of production in the first years because of these effects in unconventional reservoirs.
|File Size||5 MB||Number of Pages||13|
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