Safety-Management Programs and Standardized Application Equipment Minimize Risks of Nonconventional Chemical Usage
- Darin Horaska (Baker Hughes) | Claudia M. San Juan (Baker Hughes) | Bonnie M. Bonnivier (Baker Hughes) | Allen Dickinson (Baker Hughes) | Jerry Conaway (Baker Hughes)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Projects, Facilities & Construction
- Publication Date
- December 2011
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 192 - 204
- 2011. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 6.1.3 HSSE Audit and Certification, 6.2.4 Industrial Hygiene, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 6.1.5 Human Resources, Competence and Training, 6.3.6 Chemical Storage and Use
- acrolein, standardized procedures, safety management program
- 1 in the last 30 days
- 182 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Acrolein (2-propenal) is a highly effective microbiocide and sulfide scavenger that has been commercially available since 1960 and has been used widely in the oil- and gas-production industry. Acrolein is a liquid product supplied in and applied from specialized containers, eliminating potential releases from transfers between tanks. The acrolein containers are built to comply with international transportation regulations. This paper will cover the development of a safety-management program and standardization of application equipment that allow the usage of acrolein for applications with a risk comparable to, or in some cases lower than, that for conventional chemical products.
Standardized operating procedures, closed-system application equipment [verified by industrial hygiene (IH) monitoring], and redundant safety devices are built into the system to prevent chemical exposures or misapplications. Applications are performed by trained and certified personnel who have completed a specific competency evaluation under field conditions. A detailed and customized safety-management program is completed and implemented for each application with extensive client participation.
This paper will cover the core of the safety-management program, which focuses on developing site-specific elements, including process safety information, process hazard analysis, operating procedures, employee and contractor training, applicator competency and field evaluation, prestartup safety reviews, management of change, and emergency planning and response procedures.
A safety audit program is also implemented to ensure that the completed safety management program complies with each element. Audits are conducted at the actual location during the course of the chemical application. A strong safety-management program and standardized application system have been shown to reduce personnel and environmental risks by lowering the potential for misapplications or equipment failures. These systems have allowed successful treatment programs on numerous global production assets. To validate this, a series of case histories will be presented that highlight the best practices that enable the safe application of acrolein.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||13|
19 CCR 4.5., Division 2, Chapter 4.5, California AccidentalRelease Prevention (CalARP) Program. 2004. Sacramento, California:California Code of Regulations.
29 CFR 1910.119. Process safety management of highlyhazardous chemicals. 1994. Washington, DC: OSHA.
49 CFR 178, Specifications for Packagings. 2008.Washington, DC: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, USDOT.
BPCI (Baker Performance Chemicals Inc.). 2009.MAGNACIDETM B Microbiocide and MAGNATREATTM SulfideScavenger Acrolein Products Description and Use Manual. Sugar Land, Texas:Baker Hughes Incorporated.
Dickinson, A., Peck, G., and Arnold, B. 2005. EffectiveChemistries to Control SRB, H2S, and FeS Problems. Paper SPE 93007 presented atthe SPE Western Regional Meeting, Irvine, California, USA, 30 March-1 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/93007-MS.
Horaska, D.D., Penkala, J.E., Reed, C.A., Law, M.D., Gaffney,S.H., Srour, M.M., Al-Harthy, A.S. 2009. Field Experiences Detailing Acrolein(2-propenal) Treatment of a Produced Water Injection System in the Sultanate ofOman. Paper SPE 120238 presented at the SPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show andConference, Bahrain, 15-18 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/120238-MS.
Howell, J.J. and Ward, M.B. 1991. The Use of Acrolein as aHydrogen Sulfide Scavenger in Multiphase Production. Paper SPE 21712 presentedat the SPE Production Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA, 7-9April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/21712-MS.
International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code.2008. London, UK: International Maritime Organization (IMO).
Johnson, M.D., Harless, M.L., Dickinson, A.L., and Burger, E.D.1999. A New Chemical Approach to Mitigate Sulfide Production in Oilfield WaterInjection Systems. Paper SPE 50741 presented at the SPE International Symposiumof Oilfield Chemistry, Houston, 16-19 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/50741-MS.
Kissel, C.L., Brady, J.L., Gottry, H.N.C., Meshishnek, M.J.,and Preus, M.W. 1985. Factors Contributing to the Ability of Acrolein ToScavenge Corrosive Hydrogen Sulfide. SPE J. 25 (5):647-655. SPE-11749-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/11749-PA.
Mottl, N. 2007. Acrolein: Occupational Risk Assessment ofAntimicrobial Uses for the Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Document.Technical Report, DP Code 321012/PC Code 000701, US EPA, Washington, DC (August2007).
Oates, S.W., Gregg, M.R., Mulak, K.J., Walsh, G.G., and Dickinson, A.L.2006. A Novel Approach to Managing a Seawater Injection Biocide ProgramReduces Risk, Improves Biological Control, and Reduces Capital and Opex Costson an Offshore Platform. Paper 06665 presented at the NACE InternationalCORROSION 2006 61st Annual Conference and Exposition, San Diego, California,USA, 12-16 March.
OSHA. 2006. Safety and Health Topics: PermissibleExposure Limits (PELs), http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/pel/(accessed 6 December 2010).
Palacios, C.A. and Hernandez, T. 2003. Field Experiences for SRB-MIC Controlin Water Injection Plants Having Continuous Pit Recovered Fluids. Paper 03547presented at the NACE International CORROSION 2003 58th Annual Conference andExposition, San Diego, California, USA, March.
Penkala, J., Law, M.D., Horaska, D.D., and Dickinson,A.L. 2004. Acrolein 2-Propenal: A Versatile Microbiocide for Control ofBacteria in Oilfield Systems. Paper 04749 presented at the NACE InternationalCORROSION 2004 59th Annual Conference and Exposition, New Orleans, 30 March-2April.
Penkala, J.E., Mosley, J., Baker, M., and Castro, L.2008. The use of acrolein for improved water quality, control of MIC, andenhanced injectivity in secondary oil recovery systems. Presented at theSouthwestern Petroleum Short Course, Lubbock, Texas, USA, 21-24 April.
Penkala, J.E., Reed, C., and Foshee, J. 2006. AcroleinApplication To Mitigate Biogenic Sulfides and Remediate Injection-Well Damagein a Gas-Plant Water-Disposal System. Paper SPE 98067 presented at theInternational Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette,Louisiana, USA, 15-17 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/98067-MS.
Penkala, J.E., Soto, H., Carranza, D., and Gimenez, C.2005. Acrolein (2-Propenal) mitigates sessile biofilm and biogenic sulfides ina large waterflood in Neuquen Province, Argentina. Paper 5140 presented at theASVENCOR Congreso Internacional de Corrosión in Lechería Edo, Anzoátegui,Venezuela, 22-26 November.
Ramachandran, S., Penkala, J., Lehmann, M., and Jovancicevic, V. 2008. Understanding iron sulfide dissolution using differentchemicals in anoxic aqueous environments. Paper presented at the Saudi ArabiaOil and Gas Exhibition (SAOGE 2008), Dammam, Saudi Arabia, 17-19 November.
Salma, T. 2000. Cost Effective Removal of Iron Sulfide andHydrogen Sulfide from Water Using Acrolein. Paper SPE 59708 presented at theSPE Permian Basin Oil and Gas Recovery Conference, Midland, Texas, USA, 21-23March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/59708-MS.
Shield, M., Charlesworth, M., and Paakkonen, S. 2005.Field experiences using acrolein (2-propenal) for control of SRB and MIC in anoffshore production flowline and onshore production facility in WesternAustralia. Paper presented at the 16th International Oil Field ChemistrySymposium, Geilo, Norway, 13-16 March.
Smith, C.W. 1962. Acrolein. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley& Sons.