Modeling and Simulation of Nitrate Injection for Reservoir-Souring Remediation
- Mehdi Haghshenas (University of Texas at Austin) | Kamy Sepehrnoori (University of Texas at Austin) | Steven L. Bryant (University of Texas at Austin) | Mohammad Farhadinia (University of Texas at Austin)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- September 2012
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 817 - 827
- 2012. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 4.3.4 Scale, 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation
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- 575 since 2007
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Reservoir souring refers to the onset of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production during waterflooding. Besides health and safety issues, H2S content reduces the value of the produced hydrocarbon. Nitrate injection is an effective method to prevent the formation of H2S. Designing this process requires the modeling of a complicated set of biogeochemical reactions involved in the production of H2S and its inhibition. This paper describes the modeling and simulation of biological reactions associated with the injection of nitrate to inhibit reservoir souring. The model is implemented in a general-purpose adaptive reservoir simulator (GPAS). To the best of our knowledge, GPAS is the first field-scale reservoir simulator that models reservoir-souring treatment.
The basic mechanism in the biologically mediated generation of H2S is the reaction between sulfate in the injection water and fatty acids in the formation water in the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). There are proposed mechanisms that describe the effect of nitrate injection on souring remediation. Depending on the circumstances, more than one mechanism may occur at the same time. These mechanisms include the inhibitory effect of nitrite on sulfate reduction, the competition between SRB and nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB), and the stimulation of nitrate-reducing sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB). For each mechanism, we specify the biological species and chemical components involved and determine the role of each component in the biological reaction. For every biological reaction, a set of ordinary-differential equations along with differential equations for the transport of chemical and biological species are solved.
The results of reported experiments in the literature are used to find the input parameters for field-scale simulations. This reservoir simulator can then predict the onset of reservoir souring and the effectiveness of nitrate injection and helps in the design of the process. The comprehensive modeling accounts for variation in biological-system characteristics and reservoir conditions that affect the production and remediation of H2S.
|File Size||6 MB||Number of Pages||11|
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