Effect of Alkalinity on Oil Recovery During Polymer Floods in Sandstone
- Mahdi Kazempour (University of Wyoming) | Eric A. Sundstrom (University of Wyoming) | Vladimir Alvarado (University of Wyoming)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- April 2012
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 195 - 209
- 2012. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.8 Formation Damage, 5.7.2 Recovery Factors, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant), 5.5.8 History Matching, 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 5.3.4 Reduction of Residual Oil Saturation, 5.4.7 Chemical Flooding Methods (e.g., Polymer, Solvent, Nitrogen, Immiscible CO2, Surfactant, Vapex), 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing
- Alkaline flooding, Alkaline-Polymer flooding, Polymer flooding, Rheology, EOR
- 2 in the last 30 days
- 1,313 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Alkaline flooding has been purported to be a promising process for enhancing heavy-oil recovery, while alkaline/polymer (AP) and alkaline/surfactant/polymer (ASP) injection represent commercial flooding strategies for lighter oils. The alkali in an ASP flood can reduce adsorption of surfactants and react with acids in the oil to form soaps. Polymers increase the viscosity of water and control mobility ratio. The addition of an alkali to a straight polymer flood can further increase the efficiency in polymer flooding. The alkali can react with the rock and polymer to reduce polymer adsorption and decrease polymer-solution viscosity to allow higher injectivity.
We report results of core experiments for polymer, alkali, and AP tertiary floods. The conditions tested correspond to Wyoming's Minnelusa sandstone reservoirs. Berea cores were waterflooded to residual-oil saturation, and then a tertiary injection of a polymer, alkali, or AP solution was run, followed by waterflooding. We also show results of polymer-solution viscosity with varying alkali concentration. Polymer-adsorption results from dynamic and static experiments with and without alkali are reported. Numerical history match of coreflooding results was performed using CMG-STARS.
Results show that a tertiary alkali injection produces negligible oil recovery and pressure-drop increase. Straight polymer injection produces considerable oil recovery with a significant increase in pressure drop that may not be favorable for field designs. The injection of the AP solution also produced considerable oil recovery, but the increase in pressure drop was less than that of the straight polymer flood. The effects of alkali on polymer and rock surface lead to a significant impact on recovery factor, resistance factors, and also residual resistance factors.
Results of this study demonstrate one of the benefits of adding alkalis in polymer flooding--namely, the improvement in injectivity--in addition to the known reduction in polymer losses because of adsorption on the rock surface. The modeling strategy should help with alkali-enhanced polymer-flooding designs.
|File Size||6 MB||Number of Pages||15|
Bortolotti, V., Macini, P., and Srisuriyachai, F. 2009. LaboratoryEvaluation of Alkali and Alkali-Surfactant-Polymer Flooding Combined WithIntermittent Flow in Carbonatic Rocks. Paper SPE 122499 presented at the AsiaPacific Oil and Gas Conference & Exhibition, Jakarta, Indonesia, 4-6August. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/122499-MS.
Cheng, K.H. 1986. Chemical Consumption During Alkaline Flooding: AComparative Evaluation. Paper SPE 14944 presented at the SPE Enhanced OilRecovery Symposium, Tulsa, 20-23 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/14944-MS.
CMG. 2011. CMOST technical documentation. Calgary, Alberta: ComputerModelling Group (CMG).
Dominguez, J.G. and Willhite, G.P. 1977. Retention and Flow Characteristicsof Polymer Solutions in Porous Media. SPE J. 17 (2): 111-121.SPE-5835-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/5835-PA.
Ehrlich, R. and Wygal, R.J. 1977. Interrelation of Crude Oil and RockProperties with the Recovery of Oil by Caustic Waterflooding. SPE J.17 (4): 263-270. SPE-5830-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/5830-PA.
Gogarty, W.B. 1967. Mobility Control with Polymer Solutions. SPE J.7 (2): 161-173. SPE-1566-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/1566-PA.
Hirasaki, G.J. and Pope, G.A. 1974. Analysis of Factors Influencing Mobilityand Adsorption in the Flow of Polymer Solution Through Porous Media. SPEJ. 14 (4): 337-346. SPE-4026-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/4026-PA.
Hou, J., Liu, Z., and Xia, H. 2001. Viscoelasticity of ASP Solution is aMore Important Factor of Enhancing Displacement Efficiency than Ultra-lowInterfacial Tension in ASP Flooding. Paper SPE 71061 presented at the SPE RockyMountain Petroleum Technology Conference, Keystone, Colorado, USA, 21-23 May.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/71061-MS.
Huh, C. and Pope, G.A. 2008. Residual Oil Saturation from Polymer Floods:Laboratory Measurements and Theoretical Interpretation. Paper SPE 113417presented at the SPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 20-23 April.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/113417-MS.
Jennings, R.R., Rogers, J.H., and West, T.J. 1971. Factors InfluencingMobility Control by Polymer Solutions. J Pet Technol 23(3): 391-401. SPE-2867-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2867-PA.
Kamaraj, K., Zhang, G., Liu, Y., and R.S. Seright. 2011. Effect of ResidualOil Saturation on Recovery Efficiency during Polymer Flooding of Viscous Oils.Paper OTC 22040 presented at the OTC Arctic Technology Conference, Houston, 7-9February. http://dx.doi.org/10.4043/22040-MS.
Kazempour, M., Sundstrom, E.A., and Alvarado, V. 2011. Geochemical Modelingand Experimental Evaluation of High-Ph Floods: Impact of Water-RockInteractions in Sandstone. Paper SPE 143479 presented at the SPE EUROPEC/EAGEAnnual Conference and Exhibition, Vienna, Austria, 23-26 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/143479-MS.
Krumrine, P.H. and Falcone, J.S. Jr. 1987. Beyond Alkaline Flooding: Designof Complete Chemical Systems. Paper SPE 16280 presented at the SPEInternational Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 4-6February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/16280-MS.
Levitt, D.B. and Pope, G.A. 2008. Selection and Screening of Polymers forEnhanced-Oil Recovery. Paper SPE 113845 presented at the SPE/DOE Symposium onImproved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, 19-23 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/113845-MS.
Levitt, D.B., Pope, G.A., and Jouenne, S. 2010. Chemical Degradation ofPolyacrylamide Polymers Under Alkaline Conditions. Paper SPE 129879 presentedat the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 24-28 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/129879-MS.
Liu, S., Zhang, D.L., Yan, W., Puerto, M., Hirasaki, G.J., and Miller, C.A.2008. Favorable Attributes of Alkali-Surfactant-Polymer Flooding. SPE J. 13 (1): 5-16. SPE-99744-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/99744-PA.
Manji, K.H. and Stasiuk, B.W. 1988. Design Considerations For Dome's DavidAlkali/Polymer Flood. J Can Pet Technol 27 (3): 49-54. JCPT PaperNo. 88-03-04. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/88-03-04.
Mungan, N., Smith, F.W., and Thompson, J.L. 1966. Some Aspects of PolymerFloods. J Pet Technol 18 (9): 1143-1150. SPE-1628-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/1628-PA.
Nelson, R.C., Lawson, J.B., Thigpen, D.R., and Stegemeier, G.L. 1984.Cosurfactant-Enhanced Alkaline Flooding. Paper SPE 12672 presented at the SPEEnhanced Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 15-18 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/12672-MS.
Pitts, M.J., Wyatt, K., and Surkalo, H. 2004. Alkaline-Polymer Flooding ofthe David Pool, Lloydminster Alberta. Paper SPE 89386 presented at the SPE/DOESymposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, 17-21 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/89386-MS.
Potts, D.E. and Kuehne, D.L. 1988. Strategy for Alkaline/Polymer FloodDesign With Berea and Reservoir-Rock Corefloods. SPE Res Eng 3(4): 1143-1152. SPE-14935-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/14935-PA.
Pye, D.J. 1964. Improved Secondary Recovery by Control of Water Mobility.J Pet Technol 16 (8): 911-916. SPE-845-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/845-PA.
Sorbie, K.S. 1991. Polymer-Improved Oil Recovery, 183-188. BocaRaton, Florida: CRC Press.
Szabo, M.T. 1975. Laboratory Investigations of Factors Influencing PolymerFlood Performance. SPE J. 15 (4): 338-346. SPE-4669-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/4669-PA.
Wang, D., Cheng, J., Yang, Q., Gong, W., Li, Q., and Chen, F. 2000.Viscous-Elastic Polymer Can Increase Microscale Displacement Efficiency inCores. Paper SPE 63227 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference andExhibition, Dallas, 1-4 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/63227-MS.
Wu, W., Wang, D., and Jiang, H. 2007. Effect of the Visco-elasticity ofDisplacing Fluids on the Relationship of Capillary Number and DisplacementEfficiency in Weak Oil-Wet Cores. Paper SPE 109228 presented at the AsiaPacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Jakarta, 30 October-1 November.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/109228-MS.
Wyatt, K., Pitts, M.J., and Surkalo, H. 2002. Mature Waterfloods Renew OilProduction by Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Flooding. Paper SPE 78711 presentedat the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, Lexington, Kentucky, USA, 23-26 October.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/78711-MS.
Wyatt, K., Pitts, M.J., and Surkalo, H. 2008. Economics of Field ProvenChemical Flooding Technologies. Paper SPE 113126 presented at the SPE/DOESymposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, 20-23 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/113126-MS.
Yang, D.-H., Wang, J.-Q., Jing, L.-X., Feng, Q.-X., and Ma, X.-p. 2010. CaseStudy of Alkali - Polymer Flooding with Treated Produced Water. Paper SPE129554 presented at the SPE EOR Conference at Oil & Gas West Asia, Muscat,Oman, 11-13 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/129554-MS.
Zhang, Z., Li, J., and Zhou, J. 2011. Microscopic Roles of "Viscoelasticity"in HPMA polymer flooding for EOR. Transport Porous Media 86(1): 199-214. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11242-010-9616-6.