Liquid Screen: A Novel Method To Produce an In-Situ Gravel Pack
- Vivian O. Ikem (Imperial College London) | Angelika Menner (Imperial College London) | Alexander Bismarck (Imperial College London) | Lewis R. Norman (Halliburton)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- June 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 437 - 442
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant), 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 2.4.5 Gravel pack design & evaluation
- 1 in the last 30 days
- 372 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Gravel packs are conventionally used as a permeable solid layer in theannulus between a production screen and the walls of the wellbore in weaklyconsolidated subterranean formations. Gravel packing is a well-known techniquefor sand control, whereby unconsolidated fines produced from the soft formationare filtered away from the production fluids. However, gravel packs can beproblematic. The bridging of sand particles within the gravel pack can createvoids that can result in mechanical failures or significantly reduce theeffectiveness of gravel packs to restrain fines from flowing along with thehydrocarbons produced.
As an alternative, we present a pioneering method to prepare void-free andmechanically sound permeable barriers in subterranean formations as analternative to gravel packing. The method of preparation involves the curing ofPickering water-in-oil mediuminternal-phase emulsions (MIPEs) orhigh-internal-phase emulsions (HIPEs) containing monomers in the annular spacebetween a rock formation and pipe. The emulsions were prepared simply by addinglow amounts of nonionic surfactant and dispersant to premade Pickeringemulsions that were stabilized by oleic-acid (OA)-modified silica particles.The resulting macroporous solid materials, known as"poly(merised)Pickering-M/HIPEs," have a gas permeability of up to 2.6 darcysand are highly interconnected and permeable to hydrocarbons. This paper showsthat it is possible to tailor the gas permeability and mechanical performanceof the permeable barrier by altering the emulsion internal-phase volume, thevolume of surfactant added to the premade Pickering emulsion, and thecomposition and constituents of the continuous monomer phase; styrene,divinylbenzene (DVB), and poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate were used in themonomer phase.
|File Size||373 KB||Number of Pages||6|
Ayres H.J. and Ramos, J. 1974. Halliburton Services Sand ControlMethods. Duncan, Oklahoma: Halliburton.
Barbetta, A., Carnachan, R.J., Smith, K.H. et al. 2005a. Porous Polymers byEmulsion Templating. Macromolecular Symposia—(Special Issue)PolymerChemistry, Reactions and Processes 226 (1): 203-212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/masy.200550819.
Barbetta, A., Dentini, M., Zannoni, E.M. et al. 2005b. Tailoring thePorosity and Morphology of Gelatin-Methacrylate PolyHIPE Scaffolds for TissueEngineering Applications. Langmuir 21 (26): 12333-12341. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la0520233.
Barby, D. and Haq, Z. 1985. Low-Density Porous Cross-linked PolymericMaterials and Their Preparation and Use as Carriers for Included Liquids. USPatent No. 4,522,953.
Cameron, N.R. 2005. High Internal-Phase Emulsion Templating As a Route toWell-Defined Porous Polymers. Polymer 46 (5): 1439-1449. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2004.11.097.
Carnachan, R.J., Bokhari, M., Przyborski, S.A. et al. 2006. Tailoring theMorphology of Emulsion-Templated Porous Polymers. Soft Matter 2(7): 608-616. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/B603211G.
Haibach, K., Menner, A., Powell, R. et al. 2006. Tailoring MechanicalProperties of Highly Porous Polymer Foams: Silica Particle Reinforced PolymerFoams via Emulsion Templating. Polymer 47 (13): 4513-4519.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2006.03.114.
Ikem, V.O., Menner, A., and Bismarck, A. 2009. High Internal-Phase EmulsionsStabilized Solely by Functionalized Silica Particles. AngewandteChemie-International Edition 48: (4) 632. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.200990003.
Ikem, V.O., Menner, A., and Bismarck, A. 2011. Tailoring the MechanicalPerformance of Highly Permeable Macroporous Polymers Synthesized via PickeringEmulsion Templating. Soft Matter 7: 6571-6577. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C1SM05272A.
Ikem, V.O., Menner, A., Horozov, T.S. et al. 2010a. Highly PermeableMacroporous Polymers Synthesized from Pickering Medium and High Internal-PhaseEmulsion Templates. Advanced Materials 22 (32): 3588-3592.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201000729.
Ikem, V.O., Menner, A., and Bismarck A. 2010b. High-Porosity MacroporousPolymers Synthesized from Titania-Particle-Stabilized Medium and HighInternal-Phase Emulsions. Langmuir 26 (11): 8836-8841. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la9046066.
Lepine, O., Birot, M., and Deleuze, H. 2007. Elaboration of Open-CellMicrocellular Nanocomposites. J. Poly. Sci. Part A: Poly. Chem. 45 (18): 4193-4203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pola.22160.
Lissant, K.J. 1970. Geometry of Emulsions. J. Soc. Cosmetic Chemists 21 (3): 141-154.
Manley, K.S.S. 2009. Advances in Experimental Methods for Characterizationof Porous Solids. PhD dissertation, Imperial College, London, England.
Manley, K.S.S., Bismarck, A., and Hewitt, G.F. 2009a. Apparatus and MethodTo Measure Properties of Porous Media. European Patent No.WO/2009/024754.
Manley, S., Graeber, N., Grof, Z. et al. 2009b. New Insights into theRelationship Between Internal-Phase Level of Emulsion Templates and Gas-LiquidPermeability of Interconnected Macroporous Polymers. Soft Matter 5(23): 4780-4787. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/B900426B.
Menner, A. and Bismarck, A. 2006. New Evidence for the Mechanism of the PoreFormation in Polymerizing High Internal-Phase Emulsions or Why PolyHIPEs Havean Interconnected Pore Network Structure. MacromolecularSymposia—(Special Issue) 14th Annual Polychar World Forum on AdvancedMaterials 242 (1): 19-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/masy.200651004.
Menner, A., Haibach, K., Powell, R. et al. 2006. Tough Reinforced OpenPorous Polymer Foams via Concentrated Emulsion Templating. Polymer 47 (22): 7628-7635. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2006.09.022.
Menner, A., Ikem, V., Salgueiro, M. et al. 2007a. High Internal-PhaseEmulsion Templates Solely Stabilized by Functionalized Titania Nanoparticle.Chem. Commun. 7 (41): 4274-4276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/B708935J.
Menner, A., Verdejo, R., Shaffer, M. et al. 2007b. Particle-StabilizedSurfactant-Free Medium Internal-Phase Emulsions as Templates for PorousNanocomposite Materials: Poly-Pickering-Foams. Langmuir 23(5): 2398-2403. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la062712u.
Penberthy, W.L. Jr. and Shaughnessy, C.M. 1992. Sand Control. Serieson Special Topics, Vol. 1, SPE, Richardson, Texas.
Powell, R.J., Bismarck, A., and Menner, A. 2006. Methods for Forming aPermeable and Stable Mass in a Subterranean Formation. US Patent No. 7,267,169B2.
Saucier, R.J. 1974. Considerations in Gravel Pack Design. J. Pet Tech 26 (2): 205-212. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/4030-PA.
Sparlin, D.D. and Hagen, R.W. Jr. 1985. Prevention of Formation DamageCritical. Oil Gas J. 92.
Suman, G.O. Jr. 1974. World Oil's Sand Control Handbook. Houston,Texas: Gulf Publishing Co.
Tiffin, D.L., King, G.E., Larese, R.E. et al. 1998. New Criteria for Graveland Screen Selection for Sand Control. Paper SPE 39437 presented at the SPEFormation Damage Control Conference, Lafayette, Louisiana, 18-19 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/39437-MS.
Weaver, J., Blauch, M., Parker, M. et al. 1999. Investigation ofProppant-Pack Formation Interface and Relationship to Particulate Invasion.Paper SPE 54771 presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference,Hague, The Netherlands, 31 May-1 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/54771-MS.
Williams, J.M. and Wrobleski, D.A. 1988. Spatial Distribution of the Phasesin Water-in-Oil Emulsions. Open and Closed Microcellular Foams fromCross-Linked Polystyrene. Langmuir 4 (3): 656-662. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la00081a027.
Wu, R., Menner, A., and Bismarck, A. 2010. Tough Interconnected PolymerizedMedium and High Internal-Phase Emulsions Reinforced by Silica Particles. J.Poly. Sci. Part A: Poly. Chem. 48 (9): 1979-1989. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pola.23965.