Field Study of the Physical and Chemical Factors Affecting Downhole Scale Deposition in the North Dakota Bakken Formation
- Lawrence M. Cenegy (Hess Corporation) | Clyde A. McAfee (Hess Corporation) | Leonard Kalfayan (Hess Corporation)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- October 2012
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 67 - 76
- 2012. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.8 Formation Damage, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 4.3.4 Scale, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant)
- 2 in the last 30 days
- 678 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
North Dakota Bakken oil recovery has increased nearly 100-fold over the last 5 years, driven by technological advancements in hydraulic fracturing and completion design. For one North Dakota operator with 150 Bakken producing wells, 22 of the wells have experienced at least one event of severe calcium carbonate scaling in the pump and production tubing, leading to well failure. Bakken wells are completed to a vertical depth of approximately 10,000 ft, with horizontal laterals up to 10,000 ft, and are produced by means of multizone hydraulic fracturing.
The operator initially conducted a typical scale-prediction study to reduce well failures and maintain oil production. However, the scale-prediction study was challenging to perform for these Bakken wells because of the variability of the composition of the produced water. Attention then turned to the tracking and analysis of historical field conditions. A "post-mortem" of data collected from all failed wells because of scale was conducted, considering the failure type, date, type of hydraulic-fracturing procedure, pump-intake pressure, scale-inhibitor residual, calcium carbonate scaling index, geographic failure concentration, production time to failure, and cumulative water production to failure.
Results showed that 82% of the wells failed during early production (defined as less than 20,000 bbls of water produced and 2 years' production since first oil), after which failures became increasingly rare. This correlated with transient alkalinity spikes in the water analyses attributed to fracturing-fluid flowback during this critical period. Simulated blending of fracturing and formation waters demonstrated that this was the most important period to maintain high scale-inhibitor residuals because of high deposition potentials.
This paper discusses the various field and laboratory studies conducted in an effort to understand the problem, the results obtained, and the implications. Also discussed is the evaluation of two scale inhibitors before and after laboratory aging in simulated fracturing fluids.
|File Size||689 KB||Number of Pages||10|
Al-Jubran, H.H., Wilson, S., and Johnston, B.B. 2010. Successful Deploymentof Multistage Fracturing Systems in Multilayered Tight Gas Carbonate Formationsin Saudi Arabia. Paper SPE 130894 presented at the SPE Deep Gas Conference andExhibition, Manama, Bahrain, 24-26 January. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/130894-MS.
Amjad, Z. and Zuhl, R.W. 2006. Kinetic and Morphological Investigation ofthe Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate in the Presence of Inhibitors. Paper06385 presented at the NACE International CORROSION 2006 61st Annual Conferenceand Exposition, San Diego, California, USA, 12-16 March.
Bazin, B., Kohler, N., and Zaitoun, A. 2005. Some Insights Into the TubeBlocking Test Method To Evaluate the Efficiency of Mineral Scale Inhibitors.Paper SPE 96560 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference andExhibition, Dallas, Texas, 9-12 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/96560-MS.
Cheremisov, K., Oussoltsev, D., Butula, K.K. et al. 2008. First Applicationof Scale Inhibitor During Hydraulic Fracturing Treatments in Western Siberia.Paper SPE 114255 presented at the SPE International Oilfield Scale Conference,Aberdeen, 28-29 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/114255-MS.
Cowan, T.L., Delgado, E.E., Lange, G.V. et al. 2000. Successful Applicationof a Scale Inhibitor in Borate Fracture Fluids: A Field Study. Oralpresentation SPE 59542 given at the Permian Basin Oil and Gas RecoveryConference, Midland, Texas, USA, 21-23 March.
Frenier, W.W. and Ziauddin, M.E. 2008. Formation, Removal and Inhibitionof Inorganic Scale in the Oilfield Environment, 160-162. Richardson, Texas:SPE.
Graham, G.M., Dyer, S.J., and Shone, P. 2002. Potential Application of AmineMethylene Phosphonate-Based Inhibitor Species in HP/HT Environments forImproved Carbonate Scale Inhibitor Performance. SPE Prod & Oper 17 (4): 212-220. SPE-80284-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/80284-PA.
Grape, S.G. 2006. Technology-Based Oil and Natural Gas Plays: Shale Shock!Could There Be Billions in the Bakken? Technical Report, Energy InformationAdministration (EIA), Washington, DC (November 2006), http://www.eia.gov/FTPROOT/features/ngshock.pdf.
He, S.L., Kan, A.T., and Tomson, M.B. 1999. Inhibition of calcium carbonateprecipitation in NaCl brines from 25 to 90°C. Appl. Geochem. 14 (1): 17-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0883-2927(98)00033-X.
Kan, A.T. and Tomson, M.B. 2010. Scale Prediction for Oil and GasProduction. Paper SPE 132237 presented at the International Oil and GasConference and Exhibition in China, Beijing, 8-10 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/132237-MS.
King, G.E. and Leonard, R.S. 2011. Deciphering Chemical Tracer Results inMulti-Fractured Well Backflow in Shales: A Framework for Optimizing FractureDesign and Application. Paper SPE 140105 presented at the SPE HydraulicFracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 24-26 January. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/140105-MS.
Kriel, B.G., Lacey, C.A., and Lane, R.H. 1994. The Performance of ScaleInhibitors in the Inhibition of Iron Carbonate Scale. Paper SPE 27390 presentedat the SPE Formation Damage Control Symposium, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA, 7-10February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/27390-MS.
LeFever, J.A. 2005. Oil Production from the Bakken Formation: A ShortHistory. North Dakota Geological Survey Newsletter 32 (1):1-6.
Linke, W.F. and Seidell, A. 1958. Solubilities of Inorganic and MetalOrganic Compounds: A Compilation of Solubility Data From the PeriodicalLiterature, fourth edition, Vol. 1-2. Princeton, New Jersey: Van NostrandReinhold.
Martins, J.P., Kelly, R., Lane, R.H. et al. 1992. Scale Inhibition ofHydraulic Fractures in Prudhoe Bay. Paper SPE 23809 presented at the SPEFormation Damage Control Symposium, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA, 26-27 February.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/23809-MS.
Miller, J.P. 1952. A portion of the system calcium carbonate-carbondioxide-water, with geological implications. Am. J. Sci. 250 (3): 161-203. http://dx.doi.org/10.2475/ajs.250.3.161.
Miller, M. 2008. San Andres Formation—Inhibitor in Frac Fluid. InFormation, Removal and Inhibition of Inorganic Scale in the OilfieldEnvironment, ed. W.W. Frenier and M.E. Ziauddin, 188-190. Richardson,Texas: SPE.
Norris, M., Perez, D., Bourne, H.M. et al. 2001. Maintaining FracturePerformance through Active Scale Control. Paper SPE 68300 presented at theInternational Symposium on Oilfield Scale, Aberdeen, 30-31 January. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/68300-MS.
Phillips, Z.D., Halverson, R.J., Strauss, S.R. et al. 2007. A Case Study inthe Bakken Formation: Changes to Hydraulic Fracture Stimulation TreatmentsResult in Improved Oil Production and Reduced Treatment Costs. Paper SPE 108045presented at the Rocky Mountain Oil & Gas Technology Symposium, Denver,16-18 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/108405-MS.
Pongratz, R., Stanojcic, M., and Martysevich, V. 2008. PinPoint MultistageFracturing Stimulation--Global Applications and Case Histories From Russia.Paper SPE 114786 presented at the SPE Russian Oil and Gas Technical Conferenceand Exhibition, Moscow, 28-30 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/114786-MS.
Stegent, N.A., Ferguson, K., and Spencer, J. 2011. Comparison of Frac Valvesvs. Plug-and-Perf Completion in the Oil Segment of the Eagle Ford Shale: A CaseStudy. Paper SPE 148642 presented at the Canadian Unconventional ResourcesConference, Calgary, 15-17 November.
Szymczak, S., Brown, J.M., Noe, S.L. et al. 2006. Long-Term Scale InhibitionUsing a Solid Scale Inhibitor in a Fracture Fluid. Paper SPE 102720 presentedat the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA,24-27 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/102720-MS.
Tomson, M., Kan, A.T., Fan, C. et al. 2009. Integration of Kinetics IntoScale Prediction Software. Paper SPE 121681 presented at the SPE InternationalSymposium on Oilfield Chemistry, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 20-22 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/121681-MS.
Vetter, O.J., Lankford, S., Nilssen, T. et al. 1988. Well Stimulations andScale Inhibitors. Paper SPE 17284 presented at the Permian Basin Oil and GasRecovery Conference, Midland, Texas, USA, 10-11 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/17284-MS.
Yakimov, S., Mukhametshin, M., Sosenko, O. et al. 2010. A CombinedLaboratory and Field Approach to Optimize Scale Inhibition Placement viaFracturing in Krasnoleninskoe Field, Russia. Paper SPE 127874 presented at theSPE International Symposium and Exhibiton on Formation Damage Control,Lafayette, Louisiana, USA, 10-12 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/127874-MS.
Zidovec, D. 1999. Dynamic Method to Measure Calcium Carbonate Scaling. PaperNACE 111 presented at the NACE International CORROSION 54th Annual Conferenceand Exposition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 25-30 April.