Experimental Evaluation of Guar-Fracture-Fluid Filter-Cake Behavior
- Ben Xu (Texas A&M University) | Alfred D. Hill (Texas A&M University) | Ding Zhu (Texas A&M University) | Lei Wang (China Petroleum University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- November 2011
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 381 - 387
- 2011. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.8 Formation Damage, 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant), 4.3.4 Scale, 3 Production and Well Operations, 5.5.2 Core Analysis, 5.8.1 Tight Gas, 3.3.1 Production Logging, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation
- Hydaulic Fracturing, gel filter cake, gel damage
- 6 in the last 30 days
- 620 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Guar gum and its derivatives have been the most commonly used polymers to increase the viscosity of fracturing fluids. However, the conductivity of many fractures created with guar-based polymers is low because of residual unbroken polymer gel remaining in the fracture. This residue can cause permeability impairment in the proppant pack, resulting in low fracture conductivity and decreased effective fracture length. In this study, we experimentally evaluated two important aspects of the gel damage process--the thickness of the polymer-gel filter cake that is created as fracture-fluid filtrate leaks off into the formation and the yield stress of the concentrated polymer gel that accumulates in the fracture. The thickness of the filter cake created during the leakoff process was measured as a function of the polymer loading and the volume of leakoff. We created the filter cake following the procedure described by Ayoub et al. (2006) and then measured the filter-cake thickness with a precise laser profilometer. We found that the filter-cake thickness varied linearly with leakoff volume, meaning that the gel concentration factor is constant for this guar polymer fluid. The concentrated polymer filter cakes created by leakoff behave rheologically as Herschel-Bulkley fluids having a yield stress. The yield stress of this material is a critical parameter influencing whether the gel can be removed from the fracture. We measured the yield stress of borate-crosslinked guar polymer fracture fluids at concentrations up to 200 lbm/1,000 gals by use of a unique flat-plate device. The yield stresses of the polymer filter cakes were found to depend strongly on the concentration of both polymer and breaker.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||7|
Ayoub, J.A., Hutchins, R.D., van der Bas, F., et al. 2006a. New Findings inFracture Cleanup Change Common Industry Perceptions. Paper SPE 98746 presentedat the International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control,Lafayette, Louisiana, USA, 15-17 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/98746-MS.
Ayoub, J.A., Hutchins, R.D., van der Bas, F., et al. 2006b. New ResultsImprove Fracture Cleanup Characterization and Damage Mitigation. Paper SPE102326 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, SanAntonio, Texas, USA, 24-27 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/102326-MS.
Balhoff, M.T. 2005. Modeling the flow of non-Newtonian fluids in packedbeds at the pore scale. PhD dissertation, Department of ChemicalEngineering, Louisiana State University and Agricultural & MechanicalCollege, Baton Rouge, Louisiana (August 2005).
Barree, B. 2009. Tight Gas Fracturing. Keynote speech given at the 2009Hydraulic Fracture Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 19-21January.
Carreau, P.J., Kee, D.D., and Chabra, R.P. 1997. Rheology of PolymericSystems: Principles and Applications. New York: Hanser GardnerPublications.
Lee, W.J. and Holditch, S.A. 1981. Fracture Evaluation With PressureTransient Testing in Low-Permeability Gas Reservoirs. J Pet Technol 33 (9): 1776-1792. SPE-9975-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/9975-PA.
May, E.A., Britt, L.K., and Nolte, K.G. 1997. The Effect of Yield Stress onFracture Fluid Cleanup. Paper SPE 38619 presented at the SPE Annual TechnicalConference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 5-8 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/38619-MS.
McDaniel, B.W. and Parker, M.A. 1988. Accurate Design of FracturingTreatment Requires Conductivity Measurements at Simulated Reservoir Conditions.Paper SPE 17541 presented at the SPE Rocky Mountain Regional Meeting, Casper,Wyoming, USA, 11-13 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/17541-MS.
Navarrete, R.C., Cawiezel, K.E., and Constien, V.G. 1996. Dynamic Fluid Lossin Hydraulic Fracturing Under Realistic Shear Conditions in High-PermeabilityRocks. SPE Prod & Fac 11 (3): 138-143. SPE-28529-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/28529-PA.
Nguyen, Q.D. and Boger, D.V. 1983. Yield Stress Measurement for ConcentratedSuspensions. J. Rheol. 27 (4): 321-349. http://dx.doi.org/10.1122/1.549709.
Peles, J., Wardlow, R.W., Cox, G., et al. 2002. Maximizing Well Productionwith Unique Low Molecular Weight Frac Fluid. Paper SPE 77746 presented at theSPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 29September-2 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/77746-MS.
Prud'homme, R.K. and Wang, J.K. 1993. Filter-Cake Formation of FracturingFluids. Paper SPE 25207 presented at the SPE International Symposium onOilfield Chemistry, New Orleans, 2-5 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/25207-MS.
Vitthal, S. and McGowen, J.M. 1996. Fracturing Fluid Leakoff Under DynamicConditions Part 2: Effect of Shear Rate, Permeability, and Pressure. Paper SPE36493 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver,6-9 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/36493-MS.
Wang, J.Y., Holditch, S., and McVay, D. 2010. Modeling Fracture-FluidCleanup in Tight-Gas Wells. SPE J. 15 (3): 783-793.SPE-119624-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/119624-PA.
Zhu, L., Sun, N., Papadopoulos, K., and Kee, D.D. 2001. A Slotted PlateDevice for Measuring Static Yield Stress J. Rheol. 45 (5):1105-1122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1122/1.1392299.