Modeling of Hydraulic-Fracture-Network Propagation in a Naturally Fractured Formation
- Xiaowei Weng (Schlumberger) | Olga Kresse (Schlumberger) | Charles-Edouard Cohen (Schlumberger) | Ruiting Wu (Schlumberger) | Hongren Gu (Schlumberger)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- November 2011
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 368 - 380
- 2011. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.8.1 Tight Gas, 5.8.6 Naturally Fractured Reservoir, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 5.8.2 Shale Gas, 3 Production and Well Operations, 1.2.2 Geomechanics, 2.5.1 Fracture design and containment, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 1.2.3 Rock properties, 5.8.7 Carbonate Reservoir, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 2.2.2 Perforating, 5.1.2 Faults and Fracture Characterisation, 5.3.2 Multiphase Flow, 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant)
- shale gas, fracture model, hydraulic fracturing, natural fractures
- 19 in the last 30 days
- 4,877 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Hydraulic fracturing in shale-gas reservoirs has often resulted in complex-fracture-network growth, as evidenced by microseismic monitoring. The nature and degree of fracture complexity must be understood clearly to optimize stimulation design and completion strategy. Unfortunately, the existing single-planar-fracture models used in the industry today are not able to simulate complex fracture networks.
A new hydraulic-fracture model is developed to simulate complex-fracture-network propagation in a formation with pre-existing natural fractures. The model solves a system of equations governing fracture deformation, height growth, fluid flow, and proppant transport in a complex fracture network with multiple propagating fracture tips. The interaction between a hydraulic fracture and pre-existing natural fractures is taken into account by using an analytical crossing model and is validated against experimental data. The model is able to predict whether a hydraulic-fracture front crosses or is arrested by a natural fracture it encounters, which leads to complexity. It also considers the mechanical interaction among the adjacent fractures (i.e., the "stress shadow" effect). An efficient numerical scheme is used in the model so it can simulate the complex problem in a relatively short computation time to allow for day-to-day engineering design use.
Simulation results from the new complex-fracture model show that stress anisotropy, natural fractures, and interfacial friction play critical roles in creating fracture-network complexity. Decreasing stress anisotropy or interfacial friction can change the induced-fracture geometry from a biwing fracture to a complex fracture network for the same initial natural fractures. The results presented illustrate the importance of rock fabrics and stresses on fracture complexity in unconventional reservoirs. These results have major implications for matching microseismic observations and improving fracture stimulation design.
|File Size||4 MB||Number of Pages||13|
Adachi, J., Seibrits, E., Peirce, A., and Desroches, J. 2007. Computersimulation of hydraulic fractures. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. &Geomech. Abstracts 44 (5): 739-757. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2006.11.006.
Blanton, T.L. 1982. An Experimental Study of InteractionBetween Hydraulically Induced and Pre-Existing Fractures. Paper SPE 10847presented at the SPE Unconventional Gas Recovery Symposium, Pittsburgh,Pennsylvania, USA, 16-18 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/10847-MS.
Cipolla, C.L., Weng, X., Mack, M.G., et al. 2011. IntegratingMicroseismic Mapping and Complex Fracture Modeling to Characterize HydraulicFracture Complexity. Paper SPE 140185 presented at the SPE Hydraulic FracturingTechnology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 24-26 January. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/140185-MS.
Cipolla, C.L., Williams, M.J., Weng, X., Mack, M.G., andMaxwell, S.C. 2010. Hydraulic Fracture Monitoring to Reservoir Simulation:Maximizing Value. Paper SPE 133877 presented at the SPE Annual TechnicalConference and Exhibition, Florence, Italy, 19-22 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/133877-MS.
Crouch, S.L. and Starfield, A.M. 1983. Boundary Element Methods in SolidMechanics: With Applications in Rock Mechanics and Geological Engineering.London: George Allen & Unwin.
Daneshy, A.A. 1978. Numerical Solution of Sand Transport in HydraulicFracturing. J Pet Technol 30 (1): 132-140. SPE-5636-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/5636-PA.
Daniels, J., Waters, G., Le Calvez, J., Lassek, J., and Bentley, D. 2007.Contacting More of the Barnett Shale Through an Integration of Real-TimeMicroseismic Monitoring, Petrophysics, and Hydraulic Fracture Design. Paper SPE110562 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition,Anaheim, California, USA, 11-14 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/110562-MS.
Fisher, M.K., Wright, C.A., Davidson, B.M., et al. 2002. IntegratingFracture Mapping Technologies to Optimize Stimulations in the Barnett Shale.Paper SPE 77441 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference andExhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 29 September-2 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/77441-MS.
Gu, H. and Weng, X. 2010. Criterion For Fractures Crossing FrictionalInterfaces At Non-orthogonal Angles. Paper ARMA 10-198 presented at the 44thU.S. Rock Mechanics Symposium and 5th U.S.-Canada Rock Mechanics Symposium,Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 27-30 June.
Gu, H., Weng, X., Lund, J.B., Mack, M.G., Ganguly, U., andSuarez-Rivera, R. 2011. Hydraulic Fracture Crossing Natural Fracture atNon-Orthogonal Angles, A Criterion, Its Validation and Applications. Paper SPE139984 presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, TheWoodlands, Texas, USA, 24-26 January. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/139984-MS.
Gulrajani, S.N., Nolte, K.G., and Romero, J. 1997. Evaluationof the M-Site B-Sand Fracture Experiments: The Evolution of a Pressure AnalysisMethodology. Paper SPE 38575 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conferenceand Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 5-8 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/38575-MS.
Jeffrey, R.G., Zhang, X., and Thiercelin, M. 2009. HydraulicFracture Offsetting in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs: Quantifying aLong-Recognized Process. Paper SPE 119351 presented at the SPE HydraulicFracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 19-21 January. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/119351-MS.
Le Calvez, J.H., Klem, R.C., Bennett, L., Erwemi, A., Craven, M., andPalacio, J.C. 2007. Real-Time Monitoring of Hydraulic Fracture Treatment: ATool to Improve Completion and Reservoir Management. Paper SPE 106159 presentedat the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, College Station, Texas,USA, 29-31 January. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/106159-MS.
LeVeque, R.J. 1992. Numerical Methods for Conservation Laws, secondedition, 165. Basel, Switzerland: Lectures in Mathematics, BirkhaüserVerlag.
Mack, M.G. and Warpinski, N.R. 2000. Mechanics of HydraulicFracturing. In Reservoir Stimulation, third edition, ed. M.J. Economidesand K.G. Nolte, Chap. 6. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons.
Maxwell, S.C., Urbancik, T.I., Steinsberger, N.P., and Zinno, R. 2002.Microseismic Imaging of Hydraulic Fracture Complexity in the Barnett Shale.Paper SPE 77440 presented at the SPE Annual Technology Conference andExhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 29 September-2 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/77440-MS.
Meyer, B.R. and Bazan, L.W. 2011. A Discrete Fracture NetworkModel for Hydraulically Induced Fractures - Theory, Parametric and CaseStudies. Paper SPE 140514 presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing TechnologyConference, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 24-26 January. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/140514-MS.
Nolte, K.G. 1991. Fracturing-Pressure Analysis for Nonideal Behavior. JPet Technol 43 (2): 210-218. SPE-20704-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/20704-PA.
Olson, J.E. 2004. Predicting fracture swarms—the influence ofsubcritical crack growth and the crack-tip process zone on joint spacing inrock. In The Initiation, Propagation, and Arrest of Joints and OtherFractures, ed. J.W. Cosgrove and T. Engelder, No. 231, 73-87. Bath, UK:Special Publication, Geological Society Publishing House.
Olson, J.E. 2008. Multi-fracture Propagation Modeling: Application tohydraulic fracturing in shales and tight gas sands. Paper ARMA 08-327 presentedat the 42nd US Rock Mechanics Symposium, San Francisco, 29 June -2 July.
Renshaw, C.E. and Pollard, D.D. 1995. An experimentallyverified criterion for propagation across unbounded frictional interfaces inbrittle, linear elastic materials. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. &Geomech. Abstracts 32 (3): 237-249. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(94)00037-4.
Schiller, L. and Naumann, A. 1933. A drag coefficient correlation. VDIZeitschrift 77: 318-320.
Thiercelin, M. and Makkhyu, E. 2007. Stress field in thevicinity of a natural fault activated by the propagation of an inducedhydraulic fracture.Proc., 1st Canada-US Rock Mechanics Symposium (RockMechanics: Meeting Society's Challenges and Demands), Vancouver, Canada, 27-31May, 1617-1624.
Wang, J., Joseph, D.D., Patankar, N.A., Conway, M., and Barree,R.D. 2003. Bi-power law correlations for sediment transport in pressure drivenchannel flows. Int. J. Multiphase Flow 29 (3): 475-494. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0301-9322(02)00152-0.
Warpinski, N.R. and Teufel, L.W. 1987. Influence of GeologicDiscontinuities on Hydraulic Fracture Propagation. J Pet Technol 39 (2): 209-220. SPE-13224-PA.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/13224-PA.
Xu, W., Calvez, J.H.L., and Thiercelin, M.J. 2009.Characterization of Hydraulically-Induced Fracture Network Using Treatment andMicroseismic Data in a Tight-Gas Sand Formation: A Geomechanical Approach.Paper SPE 125237 presented at the SPE Tight Gas Completions Conference, SanAntonio, Texas, USA, 15-17 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/125237-MS.
Xu, W., Thiercelin, M.J., Ganguly, U., et al. 2010. Wiremesh: ANovel Shale Fracturing Simulator. Paper SPE 132218 presented at theInternational Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition in China, Beijing, 8-10June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/132218-MS.
Zhang, X. and Jeffrey, R.G. 2006. The role of friction andsecondary flaws on deflection and reinitiation of hydraulic fractures atorthogonal pre-existing fractures. Geophys. J. Int. 166(3): 1454-1465. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2006.03062.x.
Zhang, X., Jeffrey, R.G., and Thiercelin, M. 2007. Effects of FrictionalGeological Discontinuities on Hydraulic Fracture Propagation. Paper SPE 106111presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, CollegeStation, Texas, USA, 29-31 January. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/106111-MS.