Surface-Area vs. Conductivity-Type Fracture Treatments in Shale Reservoirs
- Muthukumarappan Ramurthy (Halliburton) | Robert D. Barree (Barree & Associates) | Donald P. Kundert (Halliburton) | J. Erik Petre (Hunt Oil Company) | Michael J. Mullen (Realm Energy)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- November 2011
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 357 - 367
- 2011. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant), 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 5.8.2 Shale Gas, 3 Production and Well Operations, 5.8.3 Coal Seam Gas, 2.5.1 Fracture design and containment, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 5.8.4 Shale Oil, 5.6.1 Open hole/cased hole log analysis, 1.2.3 Rock properties, 5.5.2 Core Analysis, 2.7.1 Completion Fluids, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control
- Conductivity type fracs, Shales, Unconventional Reservoir Stimulation, Waterfracs
- 6 in the last 30 days
- 1,468 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Hydraulic fracturing continues to be the primary mechanism to produce hydrocarbons out of tight shale reservoirs. Ever since the success of the Barnett shale program, operators are inclined to pump similar large-volume water-fracture (waterfrac) treatments with little or no proppant in their respective shale plays. This assumes that all shale plays are the same and react accordingly to large-volume treatments. The basic objective behind such treatments is to contact large surface area, which has been very successful in the Barnett shale play. Such large-volume treatments in other shale plays may not be an optimized solution for the specific shale attributes, and the response may lead to uneconomical production results. Some shales might require a conductivity fracture treatment on the basis of their reservoir characteristics. So, it is important to understand the characteristics of these shales before deciding on the stimulation treatments. In addition to core and log analysis of these shales, fluid-sensitivity tests, Brinell hardness (BHN) tests, unpropped-fracture-conductivity tests, and, more importantly, a diagnostic fracture injection test (DFIT) can help define the guidelines for choosing between a surface-area and a conductivity-type fracture treatment.
Integrating the various data sources is important in arriving at these guidelines. The main objective of this paper is to provide these guidelines along with examples so that a costly trial-and-error approach for stimulating shales can be avoided. Examples from both oil and gas shales (i.e., the Gothic, Haynesville, Eagle Ford, and Barnett shale plays in the USA) are included in this work.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||11|
Bill Barrett Corporation. 2010. Presentation given at the 2010Rocky Mountain Energy Epicenter Conference, Denver, 7-9 July.
Cardott, B.J. 2006. Data Relevant to Oklahoma Gas Shales.Presented at the SWS/EMD Shale Gas Workshop, Midland, Texas, USA, 22 May.
Craft, B.C., Hawkins, M., and R.E., T. 1991. Applied Petroleum ReservoirEngineering, second edition. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey:Prentice-Hall.
Craig, D.P. and Brown, T.D. 1999. Estimating Pore Pressure and Permeabilityin Massively Stacked Lenticular Reservoirs Using Diagnostic Fracture-InjectionTests. Paper SPE 56600 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference andExhibition, Houston, 3-6 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/56600-MS.
Energy Information Administration (EIA). 2006. http://www.eia.gov/.
Fisher, M.K., Heinze, J.R., Harris, C.D., Davidson, B.M., Wright, C.A., andDunn, K.P. 2004. Optimizing Horizontal Completion Techniques in the BarnettShale Using Microseismic Fracture Mapping. Paper SPE 90051 presented at the SPEAnnual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 26-29 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/90051-MS.
Grieser, W.V. and Bray, J.M. 2007. Identification of ProductionPotential in Unconventional Reservoirs. Paper SPE 106623 presented at theProduction and Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA, 31 March-3April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/106623-MS.
HPDI Production Data Applications. 2011. Austin, Texas: DrillingInfo, Inc.http://hpdi.com/index.jsp.
Kundert, D.P. and Mullen, M.J. 2009. Proper Evaluation of ShaleGas Reservoirs Leads to a More Effective Hydraulic-Fracture Stimulation. PaperSPE 123586 presented at the SPE Rocky Mountain Petroleum Technology Conference,Denver, 14-16 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/123586-MS.
Lancaster, D.E., McKetta, S.F., Hill, R.E., Guidry, F.K., andJochen, J.E. 1992. Reservoir Evaluation, Completion Techniques, and RecentResults From Barnett Shale Development in the Fort Worth Basin. Paper SPE 24884presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Washington,DC, 4-7 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/24884-MS.
Mullen, M., Roundtree, R., and Barree, R.D. 2007. A Composite Determinationof Mechanical Rock Properties for Stimulation Design (What To Do When You Don'tHave a Sonic Log). Paper SPE 108139 presented at the Rocky Mountain Oil &Gas Technology Symposium, Denver, 16-18 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/108139-MS.
Ramurthy, M., Barree, R.D., Broacha, E.F., Longwell, J.D.,Kundert, D.P., and Tamayo, H.C. 2009a. Effects of High Process-Zone Stress inShale Stimulation Treatments. Paper SPE 123581 presented at the SPE RockyMountain Petroleum Technology Conference, Denver, 14-16 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/123581-MS.
Ramurthy, M., Lyons, W.S., Hendrickson, R.B., Barree, R.D., andMagill, D.P. 2009b. Effects of High Pressure-Dependent Leakoff and HighProcess-Zone Stress in Coal-Stimulation Treatments. SPE Prod & Oper 24 (3): 407-414. SPE-107971-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/107971-PA.
Rickman, R., Mullen, M.J., Petre, J.E., Grieser, W.V., andKundert, D. 2008. A Practical Use of Shale Petrophysics for Stimulation DesignOptimization: All Shale Plays Are Not Clones of the Barnett Shale. Paper SPE115258 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver,21-24 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/115258-MS.
Shelley, B., Johnson, B.J., Fielder, E.O., Heinze, J.R., and Werline, J.R.2008. Data Analysis of Barnett Shale Completions. SPE J. 13(3): 366-374. SPE-100674-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/100674-PA.
Stegent, N.A., Wagner, A.L., Mullen, J., and Borstmayer, R.E.2010. Engineering a Successful Fracture-Stimulation Treatment in the Eagle FordShale. Paper SPE 136183 presented at the Tight Gas Completions Conference, SanAntonio, Texas, USA, 2-3 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/136183-MS.
van Krevelen, D.W. 1961. Coal: Typology, Chemistry, Physicsand Constitution. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier SciencePublishers.
Warpinski, N.R., Mayerhofer, M.J., Vincent, M.C., Cipolla, C.L., and Lolon,E.P. 2008. Stimulating Unconventional Reservoirs: Maximizing Network GrowthWhile Optimizing Fracture Conductivity. Paper SPE 114173 presented at the SPEUnconventional Reservoirs Conference, Keystone, Colorado, USA, 10-12 February.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/114173-MS.