Hydraulic Fracture Crossing Natural Fracture at Nonorthogonal Angles: A Criterion and Its Validation
- Hongren Gu (Schlumberger) | X. Weng (Schlumberger) | Jeffrey B. Lund (Schlumberger) | Mark G. Mack (Schlumberger) | Utpal Ganguly (Schlumberger) | Roberto Suarez-Rivera (Schlumberger)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- February 2012
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 20 - 26
- 2012. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 2 Well Completion, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating
- hydraulic fracture, rock mechanics, natural fracture
- 12 in the last 30 days
- 2,616 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Hydraulic-fracturing treatments have become an indispensable part of well completion in shale gasfield development. Shale formations often contain natural fractures, and complex hydraulic-fracture networks may form during a treatment. The complex fracture network is strongly influenced by the interaction between the hydraulic fracture and the pre-existing natural fractures. A criterion has been developed to determine whether a fracture crosses a frictional interface (pre-existing fracture) at nonorthogonal angles. This criterion is an extension of the one for orthogonal crossing originally developed by Renshaw and Pollard (1995). The dependence of crossing on the intersection angle is shown quantitatively using the extended criterion. The fracture is more likely to turn and propagate along the interface than to cross it when the angle is less than 90°. The validation of the criterion using laboratory experiments for various angles is described and discussed. When applied to laboratory experiments, good agreement between the criterion and experiments is observed for a wide range of angles. The criterion can be used to determine whether hydraulic fractures cross natural fractures under particular field conditions, and it has been incorporated in a hydraulic-fracture model that simulates hydraulic-fracture propagation in a naturally fractured formation.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||7|
Beugelsdijk, L.J.L., de Pater, C.J., and Sato, K. 2000. ExperimentalHydraulic Fracture Propagation in a Multi-Fractured Medium. Paper SPE 59419presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Conference on Integrated Modelling for AssetManagement, Yokohama, Japan, 25-26 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/59419-MS.
Blanton, T.L. 1982. An Experimental Study of Interaction BetweenHydraulically Induced and Pre-Existing Fractures. Paper SPE 10847 presented atthe SPE Unconventional Gas Recovery Symposium, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA,16-18 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/10847-MS.
Broek, D. 1982. Elementary Engineering Fracture Mechanics, thirdedition. The Hague, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Chuprakov, D.A., Akulich, A.V., Siebrits, E., and Thiercelin, M. 2011.Hydraulic-Fracture Propagation in a Naturally Fractured Reservoir. SPE Prod& Oper 26 (1): 88-97. SPE-128715-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/128715-PA.
Gu, H. and Weng, X. 2010. Criterion For Fractures Crossing FrictionalInterfaces At Non-orthogonal Angles. Paper ARMA 10-198 presented at the 44thU.S. Rock Mechanics Symposium and 5th U.S.-Canada Rock Mechanics Symposium,Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 27-30 June.
Jaeger, J.C., Cook, N.G.W., and Zimmerman, R.W. 2007. Fundamentals ofRock Mechanics, fourth edition. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing.
Medlin, W.L. and Masse, L. 1984. Laboratory Experiments in FracturePropagation. 24 (3): 256-268. SPE-10377-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/10377-PA.
Potluri, N., Zhu, D., and Hill, A.D. 2005. The Effect of Natural Fractureson Hydraulic Fracture Propagation. Paper SPE 94568 presented at the SPEEuropean Formation Damage Conference, Sheveningen, The Netherlands, 25-27 May.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/94568-MS.
Renshaw, C.E. and Pollard, D.D. 1995. An experimentally verified criterionfor propagation across unbounded frictional interfaces in brittle, linearelastic materials. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. & Geomech. Abstracts 32 (3): 237-249. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(94)00037-4.
Thiercelin, M. and Makkhyu, E. 2007. Stress field in the vicinity of anatural fault activated by the propagation of an induced hydraulic fracture.Proc., 1st Canada-US Rock Mechanics Symposium (Rock Mechanics: MeetingSociety's Challenges and Demands), Vancouver, Canada, 27-31 May, 1617-1624.
van Dam, D.B., de Pater, C.J., and Romijn, R. 2000. Analysis of HydraulicFracture Closure in Laboratory Experiments. SPE Prod & Oper 15 (3): 151-158. SPE-65066-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/65066-PA.
Warpinski, N.R. 1985. Measurement of Width and Pressure in a PropagatingHydraulic Fracture. SPE J. 25 (1): 46-54. SPE-11648-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/11648-PA.
Warpinski, N.R. and Teufel, L.W. 1987. Influence of Geologic Discontinuitieson Hydraulic Fracture Propagation. J Pet Technol 39 (2):209-220. SPE-13224-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/13224-PA.
Weng, X., Kresse, O., Cohen, C.E., Wu, R., and Gu, H. 2011. Modeling ofHydraulic Fracture Network Propagation in a Naturally Fractured Formation.Paper SPE 140253 presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing TechnologyConference, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 24-26 January. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/140253-MS.
Zhang, X. and Jeffrey, R.G. 2006. The role of friction and secondary flawson deflection and reinitiation of hydraulic fractures at orthogonalpre-existing fractures. Geophys. J. Int. 166 (3): 1454-1465. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2006.03062.x.
Zhang, X., Jeffrey, R.G., and Thiercelin, M. 2007a. Deflection andpropagation of fluid-driven fractures at frictional bedding interfaces: Anumerical investigation. J. Struct. Geol. 29 (3): 396-410.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsg.2006.09.013.
Zhang, X., Jeffrey, R.G., and Thiercelin, M. 2007b. Effects of FrictionalGeological Discontinuities on Hydraulic Fracture Propagation. Paper SPE 106111presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, CollegeStation, Texas, USA, 29-31 January. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/106111-MS.
Zhou, J., Chen, M., Jin, Y., and Zhang, G.-q. 2008. Analysis of fracturepropagation behavior and fracture geometry using a tri-axial fracturing systemin naturally fractured reservoirs. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 45 (7): 1143-1152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2008.01.001.