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Perspectives on CCS Cost and Economics
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- Journal Paper
- Haroon S. Kheshgi (ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company) | Hans Thomann (ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company) | Nazeer A. Bhore (Exxon Mobil Corporation) | Robert B. Hirsch (ExxonMobil Gas and Power Marketing Company) | Michael E. Parker (ExxonMobil Production Company) | Gary Teletzke (ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company)
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- SPE Economics & Management
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- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 2012. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 2.5.1 Global Climate Change/CO2 Capture and Management
- ghg, carbon, CCS, climate change
- 10 in the last 30 days
- 715 since 2007
Focus on carbon capture and storage (CCS) has grown over the past decade with recognition of CCS's potential to make deep CO2-emission reductions and that fossil fuels will continue to be needed to supply much of the world's energy demands for decades to come. How CCS will compare with other options in the future depends critically on the cost of CCS (the focus of this paper) and resolution of barriers to CCS deployment and costs and barriers for other emission-reduction options.
This paper provides a comparison of the cost of electricity of five power-generation options--coal-and-gas-combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) with and without CCS and nuclear--and shows regions of carbon price and fuel prices where each can be economically viable.
Current cost estimates for coal CCS for nth-of-a-kind power-generation plant are in the USD 60 to 100/t of CO2 avoided, which is higher than some of the earlier CCS estimates, and higher than the generally accepted range of expected carbon prices in the next 2 decades. The high cost of coal CCS suggests that
- Gas-based power generation is significantly more economical than coal CCS at carbon prices less than USD 60 to 100/t CO2.
- Even after carbon prices reach USD 60 to 100/t CO2, gas CCS produces lower-cost electricity than coal CCS, as long as natural-gas prices remain less than USD 9/1,000 Btu.
- Nuclear has a lower cost of electricity than coal CCS.
Although coal or gas CCS is unlikely to be economical in power generation over the next 2 decades, subsidized demonstrations of CCS are likely to occur. In addition, components of CCS technologies will continue to be economically practiced in early-use segments [e.g., natural-gas processing and enhanced-oil-recovery (EOR) operations]. In the natural-gas-processing industry, CO2 separation cost is a fraction of the cost of CO2 capture in power generation because of its higher gas pressure, and the CO2 separation is typically necessary to monetize the natural-gas resource.
In contrast, CCS for most refinery and industrial emissions is expected to be significantly more costly than in power generation because the CO2 streams are typically smaller scale and more distributed than those from large power plants.
Realistic cost estimates for CCS and for other greenhouse-gas (GHG) mitigation options are an important input for focusing research, development, and demonstration addressing barriers to applications that show the greatest promise and for development of sound policy.
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Figueroa, J.D., Fout, T., Plasynski, S., McIlvried, H., and Srivastava, R.D. 2008. Advances in CO2 capture technology--The U.S.Department of Energy's Carbon Sequestration Program. Int. J. Greenhouse GasControl 2 (1): 9-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1750-5836(07)00094-1.
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Global CCS Institute. 2011. The Global Status of CCS: 2010. Annual Report,Global CCS Institute, Canberra, Australia (8 March 2011), http://cdn.globalccsinstitute.com/sites/default/files/publications/12776/global-status-ccs-2010.pdf.
Government Accountability Office (GAO). 2010. Coal Power Plants:Opportunities Exist for DOE to Provide Better Information on the Maturity ofKey Technologies to Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions. Report to CongressionalRequesters No. GAO-10-675, US GAO, Washington, DC (June 2010), 69, http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d10675.pdf.
Grubler, A. 2009. An assessment of the costs of the French nuclear PWRprogram 1970-2000. IIASA Interim Report IR-09-036, International Institute forApplied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria (6 October 2009), http://www.iiasa.ac.at/Publications/Documents/IR-09-036.pdf.
Hamilton, M.R., Herzog, H.J., and Parsons, J.E. 2009. Cost and U.S. publicpolicy for new coal power plants with carbon capture and sequestration.Energy Procedia 1 (1): 4487-4494. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2009.02.266.
Hargrove, B., Melzer, L.S., and Whitman, L. 2010. A Status Report onNorth American CO2 EOR Production and CO2 Supply.Presentation given at the 16th Annual CO2 Flooding Conference,Midland, Texas, USA, 9-10 December.
Herzog, H., Smekens, K., Dadhich, P., et al. 2005. Cost and economicpotential. In IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage,ed. B. Metz, O. Davidson, H.D. Coninck, M. Loos, and L. Meyer, 442. Cambridge,UK: Cambridge University Press.
IEA and OECD-NEA. 2010. Projected Costs of Generating Electricity,2010 edition. Paris, France: International Energy Agency (IEA).
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IEA. 2009. Power generation in the 450 scenario. In World Energy Outlook2009, Chap. 7. Paris, France: International Energy Agency (IEA). http://www.iea.org/textbase/nppdf/free/2009/weo2009.pdf.
IHS CERA. 2009. Capital Costs Analysis Forum--North American Power, http://www.ihs.com/products/energy-capital-costs-analysis/north-american-power.aspx.
IHS CERA. 2010. Fueling North America's Energy Future: The UnconventionalNatural Gas Revolution and the Carbon Agenda. Final Report, IHS CambridgeEnergy Research Associates, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 105.
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Kelley, B.T., Valencia, J.A., Northrop, P.S., and Mart, C.J. 2010.Controlled Freeze Zone™ Technology for Developing Sour Gas Reserves. Paperpresented at the 10th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas ControlTechnologies, Amsterdam, 19-23 September.
Kheshgi, H.S. and Prince, R.C. 2005. Sequestration of fermentationCO2 from ethanol production. Energy 30 (10):1865-1871. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2004.11.004.
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Parker, M.E., Valencia, J., Northrop, S., Foglesong, B., and Duncan, W.T.2009. CO2 Management at ExxonMobil's LaBarge Field, Wyoming, USA.Paper IPTC 13258 presented at the International Petroleum TechnologyConference, Doha, Qatar, 7-9 December. http://dx.doi.org/10.2523/13258-MS.
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