Unique CO2-Injection Experience in the Bati Raman Field May Lead to a Proposal of EOR/Sequestration CO2 Network in the Middle East
- Secaeddin Sahin (Turkish Petroleum Corporation) | Ulker Kalfa (Turkish Petroleum Corporation) | Demet Celebioglu (Turkish Petroleum Corporation)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Economics & Management
- Publication Date
- January 2012
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 42 - 50
- 2012. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.4.2 Gas Injection Methods, 4.3.4 Scale, 5.8.7 Carbonate Reservoir, 5.4 Enhanced Recovery, 6.5.3 Waste Management
- EOR, CO2 sequestration
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Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one of the most important emission-reduction technologies available for large stationary CO2 sources. Fossil-fueled power generation is the largest source of carbon dioxide (CO2) that could be captured and stored. Depleted oil and gas fields and major CO2 sources nearby are ideal places for large-scale geological storage. Injection of CO2 into a depleted reservoir can enhance the recovery of hydrocarbons. The circumstances, in fact, dictate that the CO2 enhanced-oil-recovery (EOR) industry and power-generation sector should be eager to magnify the mutually beneficial link between CO2 EOR and new industrial sources of CO2.
In 1986, the Turkish Petroleum Corporation (TPAO) started the first large-scale immiscible-CO2-injection project in southeastern Turkey. Approximately 1 million tons/yr of naturally occurring CO2 has been injected into Garzan carbonates in the Bati Raman field. A substantial increase in the production rate and ultimate recovery has been experienced, and this is expected to continue. The Bati Raman immiscible-CO2-injection project has been acknowledged as one of the most unique and successful EOR applications in the history of heavy oil in fractured-limestone reservoirs.
There are nearly 50 oil fields in Turkey, and a significant proportion of them would be potentially suitable for EOR. If sufficient volumes of CO2 were economically available, many of these could produce incremental oil for an extended period. It is a fact that sedimentary basins in the Middle East are typically carbonates, and this limits the selection of EOR processes significantly. Having observed CO2 injection as an excellent choice for carbonates through experience with the Bati Raman field, one may extend the CO2 network idea to the whole region. This will not only activate the enormous EOR potential in the mature fields of the Middle East, but also the permanent storage of CO2 through a common effort.
The use of captured CO2 for EOR will become feasible if CO2-recovery plants with a higher CO2 content give an attractive CO2 delivery cost and emission rights can be traded in the carbon market, which was introduced by the Kyoto protocol. The major challenges would be formulating a working and acceptable model between petroleum and power sectors and to establish a market mechanism to ensure that this system becomes economically feasible.
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