Surge-and-Swab Pressure Predictions for Yield-Power-Law Drilling Fluids
- Freddy E. Crespo (University of Oklahoma) | Ramadan Mohammed Ahmed (University of Oklahoma) | Arild Saasen (Det norske oljeselskap ASA) | Majed Enfis (University of Oklahoma) | Mahmood Amani (Texas A&M University at Qatar)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Drilling & Completion
- Publication Date
- December 2012
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 574 - 585
- 2012. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.6 Drilling Operations, 1.6.10 Running and Setting Casing, 1.7.6 Wellbore Pressure Management, 1.7.5 Well Control, 3 Production and Well Operations, 1.11 Drilling Fluids and Materials
- 7 in the last 30 days
- 1,158 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Surge and swab pressures have been known to cause formation fracture, lost circulation, and well-control problems. Accurate prediction of these pressures is crucially important in estimating the maximum tripping speeds to keep the wellbore pressure within specified limits of the pore and fracture pressures. It also plays a major role in running casings, particularly with narrow annular clearances. Existing surge/swab models are based on Bingham plastic (BP) and power-law (PL) fluid rheology models. However, in most cases, these models cannot adequately describe the flow behavior of drilling fluids. This paper presents a new steady-state model that can account for fluid and formation compressibility and pipe elasticity. For the closed-ended pipe, the model is cast into a simplified model to predict pressure surge in a more convenient way. The steady-state laminar-flow equation is solved for narrow slot geometry to approximate the flow in a concentric annulus with inner-pipe axial movement considering yield-PL (YPL) fluid. The YPL rheology model is usually preferred because it provides a better description of the flow behavior of most drilling fluids. The analytical solution yields accurate predictions, though not in convenient forms. Thus, a numerical scheme has been developed to obtain the solutions. After conducting an extensive parametric study, regression techniques were applied primarily to develop a simplified model (i.e., dimensionless correlation). The performance of the correlation has been tested by use of field and laboratory measurements. Comparisons of the model predictions with the measurements showed a satisfactory agreement. In most cases, the model makes better predictions in terms of closeness to the measurements because of the application of a more realistic rheology model. The correlation and model are useful for slimhole, deepwater, and extended-reach drilling applications.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||12|
Ahmed, R., Enfis, M., Miftah-El-Kheir, H. et al. 2010. The Effect ofDrillstring Rotation on Equivalent Circulation Density: Modeling and Analysisof Field Measurements. Paper SPE 135587 presented at the SPE Annual TechnicalConference and Exhibition, Florence, Italy, 19-22 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/135587-MS.
Ahmed, R.M., Miska, S.Z., and Miska, W.Z. 2006. Friction Pressure LossDetermination of Yield-Power-Law Fluid in Eccentric Annular Laminar Flow.Wiertnictwo Nafta Gaz. 23 (1): 47-53.
Ahmed, R.M. and Miska, S.Z. 2009. Advanced Drilling and WellTechnology, ed. B. Aadnoy, I. Cooper, S. Miska, R.F. Mitchell, and M.L.Payne, Chap. 4.1, 191-220. Richardson, Texas: SPE.
Bing, Z., Kaiji, Z., and Qiji, Y. 1995. Equations Help Calculate Surge andSwab Pressures in Inclined Well. Oil & Gas J. 93:74-77.
Bourgoyne, A.T., Chenevert, M.E., and Millhein, K.K. 1986. Applied DrillingEngineering, Vol. 2, 167-171. Richardson, Texas: Textbook Series, SPE.
Burkhardt, J.A. 1961. Wellbore Pressure Surges Produced by Pipe Movement.J. Pet. Technol. 13: 595-605. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/1546-G.
Cannon, G.E. 1934. Changes in Hydrostatic Pressure Due to Withdrawing DrillPipe from the Hole. In API Drilling and Production Practices, pp. 42-47.Washington, DC: American Petroleum Institute.
Cardwell Jr, W.T. 1953. Pressure Changes in Drilling Wells Caused by PipeMovement. In API Drilling and Production Practices, pp. 97-112.Washington, DC: American Petroleum Institute.
Chukwu, G.A. and Blick, E.F. 1989. Couette Flow of Non-Newtonian Power-LawFluids. In Applied Simulation & Modeling. Anaheim, California: ActaPress.
Clark, E.H. 1955. Bottom-Hole Pressure Surges While Running Pipes. Pet.Eng. Int, pp. 68-96.
Clark Jr., E.H. 1956. A Graphic View of Pressure Surges and LostCirculation. In API Drilling and Production Practices, p. 424-438.Washington, DC: American Petroleum Institute.
Clark, R.K. and Fontenot, J.E. 1974. Field Measurements of the Effects ofDrillstring Velocity, Pump Speed, and Lost Circulation Material on DownholePressures, Paper SPE 4970 presented at the Annual Fall Meeting of theSociety of Petroleum Engineers of AIME, Houston, Texas, 6-9 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/4970-MS.
Dodge, D.W. and Metzner, A.B. 1959. Turbulent Flow of Non-Newtonian Systems.AIChE J 5 (2): 189-203.
Filip, P. and David, J. 2003. Axial Couette-Poiseuille Flow of Power-LawViscoplastic Fluids in Concentric Annuli. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 40 (3-4): 111-119. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(03)00107-4.
Flumerfelt, R.W., Pierick, M.W., Cooper, S.L. et al. 1969. Generalized PlaneCouette Flow of a Non-Newtonian Fluid. Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundamen. 8 (2): 354-357. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/i160030a028.
Fontenot, J.E. and Clark, R.K. 1974. An Improved Method for Calculating Swaband Surge Pressures and Circulating Pressures in a Drilling Well. SPE J 14 (5): 451-462. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/4521-PA.
Fordham, E.J., Bittleston, S.H., and Tehrani, M.A. 1991. Viscoplastic Flowin Centered Annuli, Pipes and Slots. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 30 (3): 517-524. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ie00051a012.
Goins, W.C., Weichhert, J.P., Burba, J.L. et al. 1951. Down-the-HolePressure Surges and Their Effect on Loss of Circulation. In Drilling andProduction Practices, p. 125-132. Washington DC: American PetroleumInstitute.
Guillot, D. 1990. Rheology of Well Cementing Slurries. In WellCementing, ed. E.B. Nelson, p. 4.01-4.37. Houston, Texas: SchlumbergerEducational Services.
Guillot, D. and Dennis, J.D. 1988. Prediction of Laminar and TurbulentFriction Pressures of Cement Slurries in Pipes and Centered Annuli. SPE Paper18377 presented at the European Petroleum Conference, London, 18-19 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/18377-MS.
Haige, W. and Xisheng, L. 1996. Study on Surge Pressure forYield-Pseudoplastic Fluid in a Concentric Annulus. Appl. Math. Mech. 17 (1): 15-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00131290.
Hemphill, T., Campos, W., and Pilehvari, A. 1993. Yield-Power-Law Model MoreAccurately Predicts Mud Rheology. Oil & Gas J 91 (34):45-50.
Horn, A.J. 1950. Well Blowouts in California Drilling Operations Causes andSuggestions for Prevention. In Drilling and Production Practice, pp.112-128. Washington DC: American Petroleum Institute.
Hussain, Q.E. and Sharif, M.A.R. 1997. Viscoplastic Fluid Flow in IrregularEccentric Annuli due to Axial Motion of the Inner Pipe. Cdn. J. Chem.Eng. 75 (6): 1038-1045. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cjce.5450750606.
Kelessidis, V.C., Christidis, G., Makri, P. et al. 2007. Gelation ofWater-Bentonite Suspensions at High Temperatures and Rheological Control withLignite Addition. Appl Clay Sci 36 (4): 221-231. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2006.09.010.
Kelessidis, V.C., Mihalakis, A., and Tsamantaki, C. 2005. Rheology andRheological Parameter Determination of Bentonite-Water andBentonite-Lignite-Water Mixtures at Low and High Temperatures. In Proceedingsof the 7th World Congress of Chemical Engineering, 10-14 July 2005, Glasgow,Scotland. XXX. London, UK: Institution of Chemical Engineers.
Lal, M. 1983. Surge and Swab Modeling for Dynamic Pressures and Safe TripVelocities. SPE Paper 11412 presented at the IADC/SPE Drilling Conference, NewOrleans, Louisiana, 20-23 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/11412-MS.
Lal, M. 1984. Analysis of Factors Affecting Surge and Swab Pressures.Presented at the IADC/SPE Drilling Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, 6-9Oct.
Lin, S.H., and Hsu, C.C. 1980. Generalized Couette Flow of a Non-NewtonianFluid in Annuli. Ind. Chem. Eng. Fundamen. 19 (4): 421-424.http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/i160076a017.
Lubinski, A., Hsu, F.H., and Nolte, K.G. 1977. Transient Pressure Surges Dueto Pipe Movement in an Oil Well. Oil & Gas Sci. Tech. 32(3): 307-348. http://dx.doi.org/10.2516/ogst:1977019.
Macsporran, W.C. 1982. Comments on: Generalized Couette Flow of aNon-Newtonian Fluid in Annuli. Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam. 21:98-99.
Maglione, R., and Ferrario, G. 1996. Equations Determine Flow States forYield-Pseudoplastic Drilling Fluids. Oil & Gas J. 94:63-66.
Malik, R. and Shenoy, U.V. 1991. Generalized Annular Couette Flow of aPower-Law Fluid. Ind & Eng Chem Res 30 (8):1950-1954.http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ie00056a043.
Melrose, J.C., Savins, J.G., Foster, W.R. et al. 1958. A PracticalUtilization of the Theory of Bingham Plastic Flow in Stationary Pipes andAnnuli. Trans AIME 213: 316-324.
Merlo, A., Maglione, R., and Piatti, C. 1995. An Innovative Model forDrilling Fluid Hydraulics. Paper SPE 29259 presented at Asia Pacific Oil &Gas Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 20-22 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/29259-MS.
Mitchell, R.F. 1988. Dynamic Surge/Swab Pressure Predictions. SPE DrillEng 3 (3): 325-333. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/16156-PA.
Moore, P.L. 1965. Pressure Surges and Their Effect on Hole Conditions.Oil & Gas J. 90.
Moore, P.L. 1974. Drilling Practices Manual, p. 241-252. Tulsa,Oklahoma: Petroleum Publishing Co.
Ormsby, G.S. 1954. Calculation and Control of Mud Pressures in Drilling andCompletion Operations. In Drilling and Production Practice, pp. 44-55.Washington DC: American Petroleum Institute
Osorio, F.A. and Steffe, J.F. 1991. Evaluating Herschel-Bulkley Fluids withBack Extrusion (Annular Pumping) Technique. Rheol Acta 30(6): 549-558. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00444373.
Rommetveit, R., Bjorkevoll, K.S., Gravdal, J.E. et al. 2005. UltradeepwaterHydraulics and Well-Control Tests with Extensive Instrumentation: Field Testsand Data Analysis. SPE Drill & Compl 20 (4): 251-257.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/84316-PA.
Samuel, G.R., Sunthankar, A., McColpin, G. et al. 2003. Field Validation ofTransient Swab-Surge Response with Real-Time Downhole Pressure Data. SPEDrill & Compl 18 (4): 280-283. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/85109-PA.
Schlichting, H. and Gersten, K. 1955. Boundary Layer Theory, NewYork: McGraw-Hill, pp. 60-62.
Schuh, F.J. 1964. Computer Makes Surge-Pressure Calculations Useful. Oil& Gas J 62 (31): 96-104.
Wadhwa, Y.D. 1966. Generalized Couette Flow of an Ellis Fluid. AIChE J.12 (5): 890-893. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aic.690120511.
Wagner, R.R., Halal, A.S., and Goodman, M.A. 1993. Surge Field TestsHighlight Dynamic Fluid Response. SPE Paper 25771 presented at the SPE/IADCDrilling Conference, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 23-25 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/25771-MS.
Yuan, W. and Chukwu, G.A. 1996. Unsteady Axial Laminar Couette Flow ofPower-Law Fluids in a Concentric Annulus. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 35: 2039-2047. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ie950598x.