Effect of Initial Water Saturation on the Thermal Efficiency of the Steam-Assisted Gravity-Drainage Process
- S. Javad P. Oskouei (University of Calgary) | Brij B. Maini (University of Calgary) | R. Gordon Moore (University of Calgary) | Sudarshan A. Mehta (University of Calgary)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- September 2012
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 351 - 361
- 2012. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.7.2 Recovery Factors, 5.8.5 Oil Sand, Oil Shale, Bitumen, 5.3.9 Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control
- 6 in the last 30 days
- 529 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
The commercial viability of the steam-assisted gravity-drainage (SAGD) process is affected negatively by several undesirable reservoir features, such as pronounced heterogeneity, low vertical permeability, thick and areally extensive shale barriers, and steam thief zones. The efficiency of SAGD projects is also affected by the presence of higher water saturation in the target zone. Although the presence of small mobile-water saturation is not considered harmful, reservoirs with high water saturation may be poorly suited for the SAGD process. Nonetheless, SAGD remains the only practical technology for in-situ extraction of oil from oil-sand reservoirs, even when mobile water is present. This raises the question of how much mobile water is prohibitive.
To investigate the effect of water saturation on SAGD performance, high-pressure physical-model experiments were carried out. Different levels of water saturations were established in the model by modifying the packing and saturating techniques. SAGD experiments were carried out by injecting superheated steam at controlled rates and producing the oil from the production well at constant pressure. The injection rate was selected to keep the pressure difference between the injector and the producer at a low level.
The oil-production behavior was analyzed to evaluate the effect of water saturation on the thermal efficiency of the process. On the basis of the results of low- (immobile) and high- (mobile) water-saturation experiments, it was observed that the oil-recovery factor dropped by 6.6% when the initial water saturation was increased from 14.7% to 31.8%.
|File Size||9 MB||Number of Pages||11|
Butler, R.M. 1987. Rise Of Interfering Steam Chambers. J Can PetTechnol 26 (3): 70-75. Paper No. 87-03-07. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/87-03-07.
Butler, R.M. 1989. The Potential For Horizontal Wells For PetroleumProduction. J Can Pet Technol 28 (3). PETSOC-89-03-03. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/89-03-03.
Butler, R.M., McNab, G.S., and Lo, H.Y. 1981. Theoretical studies on thegravity drainage of heavy oil during in situ steam heating. Can. J. Chem.Eng. 59 (4): 455-460.
Doan, L.T., Baird, H., Doan, Q.T., and Ali, S.M.F. 1999. Performance of theSAGD Process In the Presence of a Water Sand - A Preliminary Investigation.Paper PETSOC-99-40 presented at the Petroleum Society's 50th Annual TechnicalMeeting, Calgary, 14-18 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/99-40.
Donnelly, J.K. 1998. Who Invented Gravity? J Can Pet Technol 37 (9). PETSOC-98-09-DA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/98-09-DA.
Edmunds, N.R. 1994. The Case for SAGD: Theory and Practice of Heavy Oil andBitumen Recovery. Paper prepared for presentation at the SPE/CIM/CANMETInternational Conference on Recent Advances in Horizontal Well Applications,Calgary, 20-23 March.
Edmunds, N.R., Haston, J.A., and Best, D.A. 1988. Analysis andImplementation of the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage Process the AOSTRA UTF.Paper presented at the 4th UNITAR/UNDP International Conference on Heavy Crudeand Tar Sands, Edmondon, Alberta, Canada, 7-12 August.
Good, W.K., Luhning, R.W., and Kisman, K.E. 2006. Process for sequentiallyapplying SAGD to adjacent sections of a petroleum reservoir. US Patent No.7,090,014.
Good, W.K., Rezk, C., and Felty, B.D. 1997. Other Criteria AffectingSAGD Performance in the Athabasca McMurray Formation. Companion Report(‘Possible Effects of Gas Caps on SAGD Performance,' March 1997), AlbertaEnergy Utilities Board, Calgary, Alberta (April 1997), http://eipa.alberta.ca/resources/publications/criteriaaffectingsagd.aspx.
Joshi, S.D. 1986. A Laboratory Study of Thermal Oil Recovery UsingHorizontal Wells. Paper SPE 14916 presented at the SPE Enhanced Oil RecoverySymposium, Tulsa, 20-23 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/14916-MS.
Kisman, K.E. 1993. Process for Confining Steam Injected into a Heavy OilReservoir. Canada Patent No. CA2015460.
Kisman, K.E. and Yeung, K.C. 1995. Numerical Study of the SAGD Process inthe Burnt Lake Oil Sands Lease. Paper SPE 30276 presented at the SPEInternational Heavy Oil Symposium, Calgary, 19-21 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/30276-MS.
Komery, D.P., Luhning, R.W., Pearce, J.V., and Good, W.K. 1998. PilotTesting of Post-Steam Bitumen Recovery from Mature SAGD Wells in Canada. PaperNo. 1998.214 presented at the 7th UNITAR International Conference, Beijing,27-31 October.
Nasr, T.N., Law, D.H.S., Beaulieu, G., Golbeck, H., Korpany, G., and Good,W.K. 2000. SAGD Application in Gas Cap and Top Water Oil Reservoirs. PaperPETSOC-2000-020 presented at the Canadian International Petroleum Conference,Calgary, Alberta, 4-8 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2000-020.
Shin, H. and Polikar, M. 2004. Review of Reservoir Parameters to OptimizeSAGD and Fast-SAGD Operating Conditions. Paper PETSOC-2004-221 presented at theCanadian International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, 8-10 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2004-221.
Singhal, A.K., Das, S.K., Leggitt, S.M., Kasraie, M., and Ito, Y. 1996.Screening of Reservoirs For Exploitation by Application of Steam AssistedGravity Drainage/Vapex Processes. Paper SPE 37144 presented at theInternational Conference on Horizontal Well Technology, Calgary, 18-20November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/37144-MS.
Sugianto, S. and Butler, R.M. 1990. The production of conventional heavy oilreservoirs with bottom water using steam assisted gravity drainage. J CanPet Technol 29 (2): 78-86.
Tortike, W.S. and Farouq Ali, S.M. 1989. Saturated-Steam-Property FunctionalCorrelations for Fully Implicit Thermal Reservoir Simulation. SPE ResEng 4 (4): 471-474. SPE-17094-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/17094-PA.
Venuto, P.B. 1989. Tailoring EOR Process to Geologic Environments. WorldOil (November 1989): 61-68.
Yang, G. and Butler, R.M. 1992. Effects Of Reservoir Heterogeneities OnHeavy Oil Recovery By Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage. J Can Pet Technol 31 (8). PETSOC-92-08-03. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/92-08-03.
Yaws, C.L. 2009. The Yaws' Handbook of Thermodynamic Properties forHydrocarbons and Chemicals. New York: Knovel. http://www.knovel.com/web/portal/browse/display?_EXT_KNOVEL_DISPLAY_bookid=2380.
Yee, C.T. and Stroich, A. 2004. Flue Gas Injection into a Mature SteamChamber at the Dover Project (Formerly UTF). J Can Pet Technol 43 (1). JCPT No. 04-01-06. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/04-01-06.