Hydrate Decomposition and Its Material Balance in a Volumetric Tilted Hydrate-Capped Gas Reservoir by Method of Depressurization
- S. Hamed Tabatabaie (University of Calgary) | Mehran Pooladi-Darvish (Fekete Associates Inc.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- August 2012
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 410 - 422
- 2012. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.6 Natural Gas, 5.9.2 Geothermal Resources, 4.3.1 Hydrates, 7.4.3 Market analysis /supply and demand forecasting/pricing
- 1 in the last 30 days
- 956 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
The decline in conventional hydrocarbon resources coupled with the increase in energy demand has encouraged the development of unconventional gas resources. One specific type of unconventional gas is the natural-gas hydrate. The substantial size of this hydrate resource is a motivating factor in its development. In the early phases of development of hydrate reservoirs, data are limited and a large number of sensitivity studies are required. Efficient and accurate analytical models are suitable for such sensitivity studies. One such model is presented in this work.
An analytical solution is developed to model the rate of gas generation and hydrate recovery when gas is produced from a tilted hydrate-capped gas reservoir in which the geothermal gradient is accounted for. As a result of the variation in temperature within the hydrate column, the size of the decomposing area increases with continued production.
Development of the analytical model in this work is based on a material-balance equation that is combined with the solution for the temperature of the decomposed zone and the hydrate-equilibrium curve. The three equations are solved simultaneously for the gas-generation rate. To validate the assumptions made in the development of the analytical model, a numerical simulator was used that does not make the assumptions of the analytical model. A close agreement is shown between the two models, validating the assumptions made in the analytical solution. The effects of different reservoir parameters on the reservoir performance were investigated by performing sensitivity analyses. The sensitivity results show how a steeper reservoir that extends closer to the base of the permafrost leads to less recovery or how a thicker hydrate cap could maintain the reservoir pressure for a longer time.
The model developed in this study can be used as an approximate engineering tool to evaluate the role of hydrates in improving the productivity and extending the life of tilted hydrate-capped gas reservoirs.
|File Size||7 MB||Number of Pages||13|
Agena, W., Inks, T., Lee, M. et al. 2004. Mapping and characterizing gashydrates in the Milne Point, Alaska area using 3-D seismic. SEG TechnicalProgram Expanded Abstracts 23 (1): 1488-1490. http://dx.doi.org/10.1190/1.1851127.
Anderson, B., Hancock, S., Wilson, S. et al. 2011b. Formation pressuretesting at the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska NorthSlope: Operational summary, history matching, and interpretations. Mar. Pet.Geol. 28 (2): 478-492. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2010.02.012.
Anderson, B.J., Kurihara, M., White, M.D. et al. 2011a. Regional long-termproduction modeling from a single well test, Mount Elbert Gas HydrateStratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope. Mar. Pet. Geol. 28 (2): 493-501. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2010.01.015.
Bhatnagar, G., Chapman, W.G., Dickens, G.R. et al. 2008. Effect ofOverpressure on Gas Hydrate Distribution. Presented at the 6th InternationalConference on Gas Hydrates (ICGH 2008), Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada,6-10 July.
Collett, T.S. and Ehlig-Economides, C.A. 1983. Detection and Evaluation ofthe In-Situ Natural Gas Hydrates in the North Slope Region, Alaska. Presentedat the SPE California Regional Meeting, Ventura, California, USA, 23-25 March.SPE-11673-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/11673-MS.
Collett, T.S., Boswell, R., Lee, M.W. et al. 2011. Evaluation of Long-TermGas Hydrate Production Testing Locations on the Alaska North Slope. Presentedat the OTC Arctic Technology Conference, Houston, 7-9 February. OTC-22149-MS.http://dx.doi.org/10.4043/22149-MS.
Demirbas, A. 2010. Methane hydrates as potential energy resource: Part 2 -Methane production processes from gas hydrates. Energy Convers. Manage. 51 (7): 1562-1571. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2010.02.014.
Gaddipati, M. 2008. Code Comparison of Methane Hydrate ReservoirSimulators using CMG STARS. MSc thesis, West Virginia University,Morgantown, West Virginia.
Gerami, S. and Pooladi-Darvish, M. 2006. Material Balance andBoundary-Dominated Flow Models for Hydrate-Capped Gas Reservoirs. Paper SPE102234 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, SanAntonio, Texas, USA, 24-27 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/102234-MS.
Gerami, S. and Pooladi-Darvish, M. 2007a. Effect of Hydrates on SustainingReservoir Pressure in a Hydrate-Capped Gas Reservoir. J Can Pet Technol 46 (10): 39-48.
Gerami, S. and Pooladi-Darvish, M. 2007b. Predicting gas generation bydepressurization of hydrates where the sharp-interface assumption is not valid.J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 56 (1-3): 146-164. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2006.01.012.
Grace, J., Collett, T., Colwell, F. et al. 2008. Energy From Gas Hydrates:Assessing the Challenges and Opportunities for Canada. Report for the Ministerof Natural Resources, Government of Canada, Expert Panel on Gas HydratesProject Report, Council of Canadian Academies, Ottawa, Canada (September 2008),http://www.scienceadvice.ca/documents/(2008-11-05)%20Report%20on%20GH.pdf.
Hancock, S.H., Dallimore, S.R., Collett, T.S. et al. 2005. Overview ofpressure draw-down production-test results for the JAPEX/JNOC/GSC et al. Mallik5L-38 gas hydrate production research well. In GSC Bulletin 585: ScientificResults From the Mallik 2002 Gas Hydrate Production Well Program, MackenzieDelta, Northwest Territories, Canada, ed. S.R. Dallimore and T.S. Collett.Ottawa, Ontario: Geological Survey of Canada.
Hong, H. and Pooladi-Darvish, M. 2005. Simulation of depressurization forgas production from gas hydrate reservoirs. J Can Pet Technol 44 (11): 39-46.
Hong, H., Pooladi-Darvish, M., and Bishnoi, P.R. 2003. Analytical Modellingof Gas Production From Hydrates in Porous Media. J Can Pet Technol 42 (11): 45-56. JCPT Paper No. 03-11-05. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/03-11-05.
Howe, S., Patil, S., Dandekar, A. et al. 2009. Production Modeling of aPotential Methane Hydrate Accumulation on the North Slope of Alaska.Petroleum Science and Technology 27 (9): 923-932. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10916460802455616.
Kamath, V.A. and Holder, G.D. 1987. Dissociation heat transfercharacteristics of methane hydrates. AIChE J. 33 (2):347-350. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aic.690330228.
Kim, H.C., Bishnoi, P.R., Heidemann, R.A. et al. 1987. Kinetics of methanehydrate decomposition. Chem. Eng. Sci. 42 (7): 1645-1653.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0009-2509(87)80169-0.
Kowalsky, M.B. and Moridis, G.J. 2007. Comparison of kinetic and equilibriumreaction models in simulating gas hydrate behavior in porous media. EnergyConvers. Manage. 48 (6): 1850-1863. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2007.01.017.
Makogon, Y.F. 1997. Hydrates of Hydrocarbons. Tulsa, Oklahoma:PennWell Publishing Company.
Moghadam, S., Jeje, O., and Mattar, L. 2011. Advanced Gas Material Balancein Simplified Format. J Can Pet Technol 50 (1): 90-98.SPE-139428-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/139428-PA.
Moridis, G., Kowalsky, M.B., and Pruess, K. 2007. Depressurization-InducedGas Production From Class 1 Hydrate Deposits. SPE Res Eval & Eng 10 (5): 458-481. SPE-97266-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/97266-PA.
Moridis, G.J. 2003. Numerical Studies of Gas Production From MethaneHydrates. SPE J. 8 (4): 359-370. SPE-87330-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/87330-PA.[year correction]
Moridis, G.J. and Collett, T.S. 2004. Gas Production from Class 1 HydrateAccumulations. In Advances in the Study of Gas Hydrates, ed. C.E. Taylorand J.T. Kwan, 75-88. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press.
Moridis, G.J. and Reagan, M.T. 2011. Estimating the upper limit of gasproduction from Class 2 hydrate accumulations in the permafrost: 1. Concepts,system description, and the production base case. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 76 (3-4): 194-204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2010.11.023.
Moridis, G.J., Collett, T.S., Boswell, R. et al. 2009. Toward ProductionFrom Gas Hydrates: Current Status, Assessment of Resources, andSimulation-Based Evaluation of Technology and Potential. SPE J. 12 (5): 745-771. SPE-114163-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/114163-PA.
Moridis, G.J., Silpngarmlert, S., Reagan, M.T. et al. 2011. Gas productionfrom a cold, stratigraphically-bounded gas hydrate deposit at the Mount ElbertGas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: Implications ofuncertainties. Mar. Pet. Geol. 28 (2): 517-534. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2010.01.005.
Pooladi-Darvish, M. 2004. Gas Production from Hydrate Reservoirs and itsModeling. J Pet Technol 56 (6): Distinguished AuthorSeries, 65-71. SPE-86827-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/86827-MS.
Pooladi-Darvish, M. and Gerami, S. 2008. Use of Analytical Models andMonte-Carlo Simulation for Quantification of Uncertainties Associated With GasProduction From Hydrate-Capped Gas Reservoirs. Presented at the OffshoreTechnology Conference, Houston, 5-8 May. OTC-19568-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.4043/19568-MS.
Pooladi-Darvish, M. and Hong, H. 2004. Effect of Conductive and ConvectiveHeat Flow on Gas Production from Natural Hydrates by Depressurization. InAdvances in the Study of Gas Hydrates, ed. C.E. Taylor and J. Kwan,Paper No. 4, 43-65. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press.
Pooladi-Darvish, M. and Hong, H. 2011. Use of formation pressure testresults over a hydrate interval for long-term production forecasting at theMount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope:Implications of uncertainties. Mar. Pet. Geol. 28 (2):535-545. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2010.01.006.
Selim, M.S. and Sloan, E.D. 1990. Hydrate Dissociation in Sediment. SPERes Eng 5 (2): 245-251. SPE-16859-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/16859-PA.
Shahbazi, A. and Pooladi-Darvish, M. 2009. Ice Formation During Gas HydrateDecomposition. Presented at the Canadian International Petroleum Conference,Calgary, 16-18 June. PETSOC-2009-155-EA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2009-155-EA.
Sloan Jr., E.D. and Koh, C.A. 2008. Clathrate Hydrates of NaturalGases, third edition, Vol. 119. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Industries,CRC Press.
Sun, X., Nanchary, N., and Mohanty, K.K. 2005. 1-D Modeling of HydrateDepressurization in Porous Media. Transport Porous Media 58(3): 315-338. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11242-004-1410-x.
Tabatabaie, H. and Pooladi-Darvish, M. 2009. Analytical solution for gasproduction from hydrate reservoirs underlain with free gas. J. Nat. Gas Sci.Eng. 1 (1-2): 46-57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jngse.2009.03.006.
Tabatabaie, S.H. 2012. Analytical Methods for Gas Production from GasHydrate Reservoirs. PhD thesis, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (inpress, to be published 2013).
Uddin, M., Coombe, D., Law, D. et al. 2008. Numerical Studies of Gas HydrateFormation and Decomposition in a Geological Reservoir. J. Energy Resour.Technol. 130 (3): 032501-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.2956978.
Wilder, J., Anderson, B., Kurihara, M. et al. 2008. Analysis Of ModularDynamic Formation Test Results From The Mount Elbert-01 Stratigraphic TestWell, Milne Point Unit, North Slope Alaska. Presented at the 6th InternationalConference on Gas Hydrates (ICGH 2008), Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada,6-10 July. Paper No. 5730.
Wilson, S.J., Hunter, R.B., Collett, T.S. et al. 2011. Alaska North Sloperegional gas hydrate production modeling forecasts. Mar. Pet. Geol. 28 (2): 460-477. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2010.03.007.
Zatsepina, O., Pooladi-Darvish, M., and Hong, H. 2011. Behavior of gasproduction from Type III hydrate reservoirs. J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng. 3 (3): 496-504. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jngse.2011.05.005.