Steamdrive Performance in a Layered Reservoir-A Simulation Sensitivity Study
- Allan Spivak (consultant) | J.A. Muscatello (Petro-Lewis Corp.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Engineering
- Publication Date
- August 1987
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 324 - 334
- 1987. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.1.9 Tanks and storage systems, 4.6 Natural Gas, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 5.4.6 Thermal Methods, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 6.5.2 Water use, produced water discharge and disposal, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 6.5.5 Oil and Chemical Spills, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 4.2 Pipelines, Flowlines and Risers, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control
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Summary. This paper describes the use of a thermal reservoir simulator to study steamdrive in a reservoir consisting of noncommunicating sand layers. The simulator was used to determine basic design parameters for steamdrive operations in the South Belridge field, Kern County, CA. Sensitivity runs were made to investigate the effect of various parameters-such as spacing, steam quality, and steam injection rate-of parameters-such as spacing, steam quality, and steam injection rate-of performance. Comparisons were made of the performance of a layered system performance. Comparisons were made of the performance of a layered system with no communication between layers and that of an identical system with vertical communication.
Fig.1 shows an outline of the South Belridge field, situated on the western side of the San Joaquin Valley, about 40 miles [64 km] west of Bakersfield and 10 miles [16 km] north of McKittrick. The King and Ellis leases are located on the northwest flank of the South Belridge structure in portions of Sections 19 and 30, in T28S and R21E. Production on these leases is from the Tulare, San Production on these leases is from the Tulare, San Joaquin, and Etchegoin sands and from the underlying Diatomite zone.
Fig. 2 is a typical log from Ellis Well 76G. The Pleistocene Tulare formation consists of eight units: two upper Pleistocene Tulare formation consists of eight units: two upper Tulare sands (UTI and UT2), three middle Tulare sands (MTI, MT2, and MT3), two lower Tulare sands (LT1 and LT2), and the lower main Tulare sand (LM). There are also three San Joaquin sands and one Etchegoin sand. Fig. 3 is a structure map of the area of interest showing structure contours on top of the lower main Tulare sand. Net sand thickness of the combined Tulare, San Joaquin, and Etchegoin sands ranges from 280 ft [85.3 m] in the northeast portion of this area to 20 ft 16. 1 m] in the southwest portion. Steamdrive and cyclic steam operations are confined to the Tulare, San Joaquin, and Etchegoin sands. The Diatomite zone is produced separately.
The bulk of the oil recoverable by thermal methods at South Belridge is in the Tulare sands, which produce 13 degrees API [0.98-g/cm ] -gravity oil at depths ranging from 400 to 1,200 ft [ 122 to 366 m]. The purpose of this study was to assist in the design of steamdrive operations on the King and Ellis leases. It was assumed, independent of any simulation study, that the upper Tulare and middle Tulare sands ("upper Tulare") would be produced and steamed separately from the lower Tulare and San Joaquin and Etchegoin sands ("lower Tulare"). This division results in two zones of approximately equal thickness.
Basic Simulator Input Data
The THERM reservoir simulator was used for these studies. The evolution of the development of this simulator is described in Refs. 1 through 3. Oil viscosity vs. temperature was obtained from analysis of a Tulare crude sample. The temperature-vs.-viscosity table entered into the simulator is given in Table 1. Other pertinent fluid properties required by the simulator are also given. properties required by the simulator are also given. The following analytic expressions were used to calculate water, oil, and gas relative permeabilities:
where Siw = Swir =0.20, Sorw = 0.25, Sorg = 0.15, Sgc = 0.01, krwro = 0.15, kroiw = 1.0, krgro = 0.5, and S*gr = sgc.
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