- Boolean operators
- This OR that
This AND that
This NOT that
- Must include "This" and "That"
- This That
- Must not include "That"
- This -That
- "This" is optional
- This +That
- Exact phrase "This That"
- "This That"
- (this AND that) OR (that AND other)
- Specifying fields
- publisher:"Publisher Name"
author:(Smith OR Jones)
Estimating CO2 Fluxes Along Leaky Wellbores
- Qing Tao (University of Texas at Austin) | Dean Checkai (University of Texas at Austin) | Nicolas Huerta (University of Texas at Austin) | Steven Bryant (University of Texas at Austin)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- April 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 227 - 238
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.14 Casing and Cementing, 1.10.1 Drill string components and drilling tools (tubulars, jars, subs, stabilisers, reamers, etc), 4.3.4 Scale
- 4 in the last 30 days
- 296 since 2007
- Show more detail
Large-scale geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) is likelyto bring CO2 plumes into contact with a large number of existingwellbores. The flux of CO2 along a leaking wellbore requires a modelof fluid properties and of transport along the leakage pathway. Knowing therange of effective permeability of faulty cement is essential for estimatingthe risk of CO2 leakage. The central premise of this paper is thatthe leakage pathway in wells that exhibit sustained casing pressure (SCP) isanalogous to the rate-limiting part of the leakage pathway in any wellbore thatCO2 might encounter. Thus, field observations of SCP can be used toestimate transport properties of a CO2-leakage pathway. Uncertaintyin the estimate can be reduced by accounting for constraints fromwell-construction geometry and from physical considerations. We then describe asimple CO2 leakage model. The model accounts for variation inCO2 properties along the leakage path and allows the path toterminate in an unconfined (constantpressure) exit. The latter assumptionprovides a worst-case leakage flux.
By use of pathway permeabilities consistent with observations in SCP wells,we obtain a range of CO2 fluxes for the cases of buoyancy-driven(post-injection) and pressure-driven (during injection) leakage. Assuming thefrequency distribution is representative of SCP wells, we observe that inleakage pathways corresponding to the slow but nonnegligible buildup of casingpressure (several psi/D), the effective permeability of the leakage path is inthe range of microdarcies to hundreds of microdarcies, and the correspondingCO2 fluxes are comparable with naturally occurring background fluxesobserved at the ground surface. In pathways corresponding to intermediate andfast buildup rate of casing pressure (tens to hundreds of psi/D), the effectivepermeability is in the range of tenths to tens of millidarcies, and theCO2 fluxes are comparable with surface flux measurements at theIllinois basin and at the natural seep at Crystal Geyser (Utah). In pathwayscorresponding to very fast buildup rate (thousands of psi/D), the effectivepermeability is from tens to hundreds of millidarcies and the CO2fluxes are up to three orders of magnitude higher than those measured atCrystal Geyser.
Allis, R., Bergfeld, D., Moore, J., et al. 2005. Implications of Resultsfrom CO2 Flux Surveys Over Known CO2 Systems forLong-Term Monitoring. Oral presentation given at the Fourth Annual Conferenceon Carbon Capture and Sequestration DOE/NETL, Alexandria, Virginia, 2-5May.
American Petroleum Institute (API). 2006. Annular Casing Pressure Managementfor Offshore Wells, Document No. 2010-10291, http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-05-04/pdf/2010-10291.pdf.
Bachu, S. and Bennion, D. B., 2009. Experimental Assessment of Brine and/orCO2 Leakage Through Well Cements at Reservoir Conditions. Int. J.Greenh. Gas Con. 3 (4): 494-501. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2008.11.002.
Bird, R. B., Stewart, W. E. and Lightfoot, E. N. 2007. TransportPhenomena, revised second edition. New York City, New York: John Wiley andSons.
Bourgoyne, A. T. Jr., Scott, S. L. and Manowski W. 2000. A Review ofSustained Casing Pressure Occurring on the OCS. Final Report, Contract No.14-35-001-30749, Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service.
Boukhelifa, L., Moroni, N., James, S. G., et al. 2005. Evaluation of CementSystems for Oil and Gas-Well Zonal Isolation in a Full-Scale Annular Geometry.SPE Drill & Compl 20 (1): 44-53. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/87195-PA.
Celia, M. A., Bachu, S., Nordbotten, J. M., et al. 2006. A Risk AssessmentModeling Tool to Quantify Leakage Potential through Wells in Mature SedimentaryBasins. Oral presentation given at the 8th International Conference ofGreenhouse Gas Control Technologies, Trondheim, Norway, 19-22 June.
Chang, K. W., Minkoff, S. E. and Bryant, S. L. 2008. Modeling LeakageThrough Faults of CO2 Stored in an Aquifer. Paper SPE 115929presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver,Colorado, 21-24 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/115929-MS.
Checkai, D. A. 2012. Estimating Permeability Distribution of LeakagePathways Along Existing Wellbores. MS thesis, the University of Texas atAustin, Austin, Texas (2012).
Crow, W., Carey, J. W., Gasda, S. E., et al. 2010. Wellbore IntegrityAnalysis of a Natural CO2 Producer. Int. J. Greenh. Gas Con. 4 (2): 186-197. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2009.10.010.
Gray, K. E., Podnos, E. and Becker, E. 2007. Finite Element Studies ofNear-Wellbore Region During Cementing Operations: Part I. Paper SPE 106998presented at the SPE Production and Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City,Oklahoma, 31 March-3 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/106998-MS.
Huerta, N. J., Bryant, S. L., Strazisar, B. R., et al. 2008. TheInfluence of Confining Stress and Chemical Alteration on Conductive Pathwayswithin Wellbore Cement. Energy Procedia 1 (1): 3571-3578. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2009.02.151.
Huerta, N. J., Checkai, D. A., Bryant, S. L. 2009. Utilizing SustainedCasing Pressure Analog to Provide Parameters to Study CO2 LeakageRates Along a Wellbore. Paper SPE 126700 presented at the SPE InternationalConference on CO2 Capture, Storage, and Utilization, San Diego,California, 2-4 November.
International Energy Agency (IEA). 2004. Prospects for CO2Capture and Storage. IEA/OECD, Paris, France, http://www.ccs-info.dk/oecd-iea-ccs-prospects.pdf.
International Energy Agency (IEA). 2008. CO2 Capture and Storage:A Key Abatement Option. IEA/OECD, Paris, France, http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/CCS_2008.pdf.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2005. Special Report onCarbon Dioxide Capture and Storage. Cambridge, United Kingdom, and New YorkCity, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2007. Climate Change2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth AssessmentReport of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UnitedKingdom: Cambridge University Press.
Jutten, J. J. and Hayman, A. J. 1993. Microannulus Effect on CementationLogs: Experiments and Case Histories. Paper SPE 25377 presented at the SPE AsiaPacific Oil and Gas Conference, Singapore, 8-10 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/25377-MS.
Kumar, A., Ozah, R., Noh, M., et al. 2005. Reservior Simulation ofCO2 Storage in Deep Saline Aquifers. SPE J. 10(3): 336-348. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/89343-PA.
Kutasov, I. M. 1988. Empirical Correlation Determined Downhole Mud Density.Oil Gas J. 86 (50): 61-63.
Kutchko, B. G., Strazisar, B. R., Dzombak, D. D., et al. 2007. Degradationof Well Cement by CO2 Under Geologic Sequestration Conditions.Environ. Sci. Technol. 41 (13): 4787-4792. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es062828c.
Locke, R. A., Krapac, I. G., Lewicki, J. L., et al. 2010. CharacterizingNear-Surface CO2 Conditions Before Injection-Perspectives from a CCSProject in the Illinois Basin, USA. Oral presentation given at the 10thInternational Conference of the Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, Amsterdam,the Netherlands, 19-23 September.
Nelson, E. B. and Guillot, D. 2006. Well Cementing, second edition.Sugar Land, Texas: Schlumberger.
Nicot, J. P. 2009. A Survey of Oil and Gas Wells in the Texas Gulf Coast,USA, and Implications for Geological Sequestration of CO2.Environ. Geol. 57 (7): 1625-1638. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00254-008-1444-4.
Nordbotten, J. M., Celia, M. A., Bachu, S., et al. 2005. SemianalyticalSolution for CO2 Leakage Through an Abandoned Well. Environ. Sci.Technol. 39 (2): 602-611. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es035338i.
Oldenburg, C. M. and Unger, A. J. A. 2003. On Leakage and Seepage fromGeologic Carbon Sequestration Sites: Unsaturated Zone Attenuation. VadoseZone J. 2 (3): 287-296. http://dx.doi.org/10.2113/2.3.287.
Oldenburg, C. M. and Lewicki, J. L. 2006. On Leakage and Seepage ofCO2 from Geologic Storage Sites into Surface Water. Environ.Geol. 50 (5): 691-705. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00254-006-0242-0.
Oldenburg, C. M., Bryant. S. L. and Nicot, J. P. 2009. CertificationFramework Based on Effective Trapping for Geologic Carbon Sequestration.Int. J. Greenh. Gas Con. 3 (4): 444-457. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2009.02.009.
Pruess, K. 2004. Numerical Simulation of CO2 Leakage from aGeologic Disposal Reservoir, Including Transitions from Super- to SubcriticalConditions, and Boiling of Liquid CO2. SPE J. 9(2): 237-248. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/86098-PA.
Pruess, K. 2005. Numerical Studies of Fluid Leakage from a Geologic DisposalReservoir for CO2 Show Self-Limiting Feedback Between Fluid Flow andHeat Transfer. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32 (14). http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2005GL023250.
Pruess K. 2008. On CO2 Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Behavior inthe Subsurface, Following Leakage from a Geologic Storage Reservoir.Environ. Geol. 54 (8): 1677-1686. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00254-007-0945-x.
PVTSim R14. 2007. Houston, Texas: Calsep Inc.
Sandler, S. I. 2006. Chemical, Biochemical, and EngineeringThermodynamics, fourth edition. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley andSons.
Tao, Q., Checkai, D. A., Huerta, N. J., et al. 2010a. Model to PredictCO2 Leakage Rates Along a Wellbore. Paper SPE 135483 presented atthe SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Florence, Italy, 19-22September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/135483-MS.
Tao, Q., Checkai, D. A. and Bryant, S. L. 2010b. Permeability Estimation forLarge-Scale Potential CO2 Leakage Paths in Wells Using aSustained-Casing-Pressure Model. Paper SPE 139576 presented at the SPEInternational Conference on CO2 Capture, Storage and Utilization, New Orleans,Louisiana, 10-12 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/139576-MS.
Tao, Q., Checkai, D. A. and Bryant, S. L. 2011. Uncertainty Analysis inQuantifying CO2 Leakage Rates Along Wellbores. Oral presentationgiven at the American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco,California, 5-9 December.
Watson, T. L. 2007. Evaluation of the Potential for Gas and CO2Leakage Along Wellbores. Paper SPE 106817 presented at the E&PEnvironmental and Safety Conference, Galveston, Texas, 5-7 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/106817-MS.
Watson, T. L. and Bachu S. 2008. Identification of Wells with HighCO2-Leakage Potential in Mature Oil Fields Developed forCO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery. Paper SPE 112924 presented at the SPE/DOESymposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 19-23 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/112924-MS.
Wojtanowicz, A. K., Nishikawa, S. and Rong, X. 2001. Diagnosis andRemediation of Sustained Casing Pressure in Wells. Final Report, Department ofthe Interior, Minerals Management Service.
Xu, R. and Wojtanowicz, A. K. 2001. Diagnosis of Sustained Casing Pressurefrom Bleed-off/Buildup Testing Patterns. Paper SPE 67194 presented at the SPEProduction and Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 24-27 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/67194-MS.
Xu, R. 2002. Analysis of Diagnostic Testing of Sustained Casing Pressure inWells. PhD dissertation, Louisiana State University (2002).
Not finding what you're looking for? Some of the OnePetro partner societies have developed subject- specific wikis that may help.
The SEG Wiki
The SEG Wiki is a useful collection of information for working geophysicists, educators, and students in the field of geophysics. The initial content has been derived from : Robert E. Sheriff's Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied Geophysics, fourth edition.