Geomechanical Risk Assessments for CO2 Sequestration in Depleted Hydrocarbon Sandstone Reservoirs
- Zhi Fang (Baker Hughes) | Abbas Khaksar (Baker Hughes) | Kate Gibbons (Baker Hughes)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Drilling & Completion
- Publication Date
- September 2012
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 368 - 382
- 2012. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.11.2 Drilling Fluid Selection and Formulation (Chemistry, Properties), 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 5.1.2 Faults and Fracture Characterisation, 1.2.2 Geomechanics, 5.6.1 Open hole/cased hole log analysis, 4.6 Natural Gas, 2 Well Completion, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 5.10.1 CO2 Capture and Sequestration, 5.1.5 Geologic Modeling, 5.3.4 Integration of geomechanics in models, 7.2.1 Risk, Uncertainty and Risk Assessment
- 5 in the last 30 days
- 800 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs are attractive targets for gas storage and carbon dioxide (CO2) disposal because of proven storage capacity and seal integrity, existing infrastructure, and other reasons. Optimum well completion and injection design in depleted reservoirs would require understanding of important rock-mechanics issues considering rock/fluid-interaction effects (e.g., drillability and completion of new wells, maximum-sustainable-storage pressures avoiding fracturing, and fault reactivations). Building a field-specific geomechanical model calibrated with well and production data is a prerequisite for addressing these issues. Through a case study, this paper demonstrates a systematic approach for geomechanical risk assessments for CO2 storage in depleted reservoirs.
A depleted gas reservoir at a 4,050-ft depth with the current pressure of 45 psi is considered in this study for CO2 sequestration. The study used offset-well drilling and wireline-log data to derive field stresses, formation pressure, rock strength, and elastic properties. A practical workflow was developed to characterize the interaction between pressure depletion and fracture-gradient changes. In this particular case, the results showed that the fracture gradient (FG) was as low as approximately 9.3 lbm/gal, and the wellbore-collapse pressure in the overburden shale was highly dependent on the well trajectory. If an operating mud-weight window of 0.5 lbm/gal is required, the well inclination should be below 65° if it is planned to be oriented toward the minimum-horizontal-stress (Shmin) direction, or less than 45° if toward the maximum-horizontal-stress (Shmax) azimuth, to mitigate drilling risks. Field data and analytical-sanding evaluations indicate no sand-control installation would be needed for injectors. Fracturing and faulting assessments confirm that the critical pressures for fault reactivation and fracturing of caprock are significantly higher than the planned CO2-injection and -storage pressures. However, the initial CO2 injection could lead to a temperature in the near-wellbore region as low as 0.7°C. There is a high risk that a fault with cohesion of less than 780 psi could be activated because of the significant effect of reduced temperature on field stresses, and it is therefore recommended that the CO2 injectors be placed in fault-free regions.
The methodology and overall workflow presented in this paper are expected to assist well engineers and geoscientists with geomechanical assessments for optimum well-completion and injection design for both natural-gas and CO2 storage in depleted reservoirs.
|File Size||10 MB||Number of Pages||15|
Addis, M.A. 1997. The Stress-Depletion Response of Reservoirs. Paper SPE38720 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, SanAntonio, Texas, USA, 5-8 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/38720-MS.
Bachu, S. and Shaw, J. 2003. Evaluation of the CO2 SequestrationCapacity in Alberta's Oil and Gas Reservoirs at Depletion and the Effect ofUnderlying Aquifers. J Can Pet Technol 42 (9): 51-61.PETSOC-03-09-02. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/03-09-02.
Beecy, D.A., Kuuskraa, V.A., and Schmidt, C. 2001. A Perspective OnThe Potential Role Of Geologic Options In A National Carbon ManagementStrategy. Paper presented at the First National Conference on CarbonSequestration, Washington, DC, 14-17 May.
British Geological Survey (BGS). 2010. CO2 storage--Sleipnerfield beneath the North Sea, http://www.bgs.ac.uk/science/CO2/home.html.
Brook, E.J. 2005. Tiny Bubbles Tell All. Science 310(5752): 1285-1287. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1121535.
Byerlee, J. 1978. Friction of rocks. Pure Appl. Geophys. 116 (4): 615-626. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf00876528.
Ewy, R.T. 1998. Wellbore Stability Predictions Using a Modified LadeCriterion. Paper SPE 47251 presented at the SPE/ISRM Rock Mechanics inPetroleum Engineering, Trondheim, Norway, 8-10 July. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/47251-MS.
Horsrud, P. 2001. Estimating Mechanical Properties of Shale From EmpiricalCorrelations. SPE Drill & Compl 16 (2): 68-73.SPE-56017-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/56017-PA.
House, K.Z., Schrag, D.P., Harvey, C.F. et al. 2006. Permanent carbondioxide storage in deep-sea sediments. PNAS 103 (33):12291-12295. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0605318103.
Hudson, J.A. and Harrison, J.P. 1997. Engineering Rock Mechanics: AnIntroduction to the Principles, 444. Amsterdam, The Netherlands:Pergamon/Elsevier Science.
Kaarstad, O. 2004. The Sleipner Project. Presentation, New Zealand CountryForum, Wellington, New Zealand (23 February 2004), http://www.energyfed.org.nz/Kaarstad.PDF.
Khaksar, A., Taylor, P.G., Fang, Z. et al. 2009. Rock Strength from Core andLogs, Where We Stand and Ways to Go. Paper SPE 121972 presented at theEUROPEC/EAGE Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam, 8-11 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/121972-MS.
Lacy, L.L. 1997. Dynamic Rock Mechanics Testing for Optimized FractureDesigns. Paper SPE 38716 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference andExhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 5-8 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/38716-MS.
Lal, M. 1999. Shale Stability: Drilling Fluid Interaction and ShaleStrength. Paper SPE 54356 presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil and GasConference and Exhibition, Jakarta, 20-22 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/54356-MS.
Lamond, J.F. and Pielert, J.H. 2006. Significance of Tests and Propertiesof Concrete and Concrete-Making Materials, 664:426. West Conshohocken,Pennsylvania: ASTM International.
Mavor, M.J., Gunter, W.D., Robinson, J.R. et al. 2002. Testing for CO2Sequestration and Enhanced Methane Production from Coal. Paper SPE 75683presented at the SPE Gas Technology Symposium, Calgary, 30 April-2 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/75683-MS.
McNally, G.H. 1987. Estimation of coal measures rock strength using sonicand neutron logs. Geoexploration 24 (4-5): 381-395. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0016-7142(87)90008-1.
Metz, B., Davidson, O., Coninck, H.D. et al. ed. 2005. IPCC SpecialReport on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage, Cambridge, UK: CambridgeUniversity Press.
Rahman, K., Khaksar, A., and Kayes, T.J. 2008. Minimizing Sanding Riskby Optimizing Well and Perforation Trajectory Using an Integrated Geomechanicaland Passive Sand-Control Approach. Paper SPE 116633 presented at the SPE AnnualTechnical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 21-24 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/116633-MS.
Reinecker, J., Heidbach, O., Tingay, M., Connolly, P., and Müller, B. 2004.The World Stress Map Project, http://dc-app3-14.gfz-potsdam.de/.
Ringrose, P., Atbi, M., Mason, D. et al. 2009. Plume development around wellKB-502 at the In Salah CO2 storage site. First Break 27(1): 85-89.
Scottish Enterprise. 2005. Carbon capture and storage market opportunities,http://www.scottish-enterprise.com/your-sector/energy/energy-background/energy-industry-reports.aspx
Tans, P. and Keeling, R. 2010. Trends in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. GlobalMonitoring Division, NOAA Earth Systems Research Laboratory, Mauna Loa, Hawaii,http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/.
Terzaghi, K. 1923. Die Berechnung der Durchlassigkeitsziffer des Tones ausdem Verlauf der Hydrodynamischen Spannungserscheinungen. Abteilung 2A:132,Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, Academie de Wissenschaffen in Wien,Vienna, Austria, 125-138.
van der Meer, L.G.H., Kreft, E., Geel, C. et al. 2005. K12-B A Test Site forCO2 Storage and Enhanced Gas Recovery. Paper SPE 94128 presented at the SPEEuropec/EAGE Annual Conference, Madrid, Spain, 13-16 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/94128-MS.
Wang, H.F. 2000. Theory of Linear Poroelasticity with Applicationsto Geomechanics and Hydrogeology, 287. Princeton, New Jersey: PrincetonUniversity Press.
White, C.M., Strazisar, B.R., Granite, E.J. et al. 2003. Separation andcapture of CO2 from large stationary sources and sequestration in geologicalformations--coalbeds and deep saline aquifers. J. Air Waste Manage.Assoc. 53: 645-715.
White, D.J., Furrowes, G., Davis, T. et al. 2004. Greenhouse gassequestration in abandoned oil reservoirs: The International Energy AgencyWeyburn pilot project. GSA Today 14 (7): 4-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/1052-5173(2004)014<004:GGSIAO>2.0.CO;2.
Zoback, M.D., Barton, C.A., Brudy, M. et al. 2003. Determination of stressorientation and magnitude in deep wells. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 40 (7-8): 1049-1076. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2003.07.001.