Numerical Simulation and Sensitivity Analysis of Gas-Oil Gravity Drainage Process of Enhanced Oil Recovery
- P.S. Jadhawar (University of Adelaide) | H.K. Sarma (Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi, UAE)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- February 2010
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 64 - 70
- 2010. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.6 Drilling Operations, 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 5.4.10 Microbial Methods, 4.6 Natural Gas, 4.3 Flow Assurance, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 4.3.1 Hydrates, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 5.4 Enhanced Recovery, 5.4.2 Gas Injection Methods, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 5.1.1 Exploration, Development, Structural Geology, 2.2.2 Perforating, 5.7.2 Recovery Factors
- immiscible gravity drainage
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The oil recovery process is controlled by the rates of gas injection and oil production, relative permeabilities, reservoir heterogeneities and the balance among viscous, capillary and gravity forces. Crestal gas injection in horizontal, vertical or reef type oil reservoirs recovers significant volumes of the residual oil due to the gas-oil gravity drainage mechanism, indicating the significance of gravity forces. This study investigates the effects of the parameters that control the process (e.g., rate of the gas injection and oil production) and reservoir heterogeneities on the overall performance of immiscible gravity drainage enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Reservoir simulation studies are conducted to map effective combinations of these parameters with respect to the oil recovery performance.
Gravity forces play an important role at nearly every stage of the producing life of the reservoir, whether it is primary depletion, secondary water or gas injection schemes or tertiary enhanced or improved oil recovery methods(1). They can be advantageously used to maximize oil recovery from the oil bearing zone under investigation through gravity drainage mechanism. Several cases reported in the literature suggest that it could deliver as high as 87 to 95% incremental oil recoveries in contrast to other gas injection EOR methods.
Gas-Oil Gravity Drainage Process
Gravity drainage is a process in which gravity acts as a main driving force and where gas replaces voidage volume(2). It is commonly implemented in either of the dipping or pinnacle reef type reservoirs.
CO2-assisted gravity drainage EOR process is a top-down process in which gas is injected in the gas cap through vertical wells at a rate lower than the critical rate (Figure 1). Critical rate is the rate at which injection gas fingers through oil zone (viscous instabilities) leading to its premature breakthrough at the production wells. Injected gas segregates and creates a gas-oil interface. Controlled oil production is started through horizontal wells placed at the bottom of the oil zone such that the voidage created by oil withdrawal (in addition to minor dissolved volumes) is replaced by the equivalent CO2 injection volume. When this happens, pressure differential across the gas cap and oil zone [that is gas-oil contact (GOC)] stay at or close to zero implying that the pressure in the gas zone behind the CO2 floodfront would be constant(3). This helps to maintain the reservoir pressure nearly constant.
|File Size||5 MB||Number of Pages||7|
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