Improved Polymer-Flood Management Using Streamlines
- Torsten Clemens (OMV) | Joseph Abdev (OMV) | Marco Thiele (Streamsim Technologies)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- April 2011
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 171 - 181
- 2011. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.3.2 Multiphase Flow, 5.4.7 Chemical Flooding Methods (e.g., Polymer, Solvent, Nitrogen, Immiscible CO2, Surfactant, Vapex)
- Flood optimization, Medium viscous oil, EOR, Streamlines, Polymer flooding
- 4 in the last 30 days
- 1,173 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Recently, modern streamline (SL) simulation has been extended to polymer flooding. In this work, we extend the applicability of SL simulation further for efficient management of polymer-injection projects. We first present our method and then demonstrate the applicability of our approach using a Romanian field as an example. Owing to the price of polymers, an optimized injection strategy is crucial to minimize costs, maximize sweep, and thereby ensure profitability of a polymer flood. The biggest advantage of SL simulation in comparison to traditional finite-difference (FD) modeling is that polymer floods can be optimized on an individual-well-pattern basis. By being able to plot cumulative oil produced as a function of polymer injected for an individual well pattern, underperforming patterns--injectors and associated offset producers--can be indentified easily and rates, concentration, and slug size can be modified to improve the local efficiency of the flood. In this paper, we introduced a new metric--the polymer-injection efficiency as a function of time for each pattern--and we show how it is central to containing costs while improving oil recovery. We demonstrate our management method on a Romanian oil field that has been operating since 1961 with 21 injectors and 136 producers. We show that the utility factor (UF) (mass of polymers injected per volume of incremental oil produced) can be reduced while sustaining oil recovery. We conclude with a discussion on SL simulation as an enabling technology for reservoir-management decisions for polymer floods.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||11|
Al Sofi, A.M. and Blunt, M.J. 2009. Streamline-Based Simulation ofNon-Newtonian Polymer Flooding. Paper SPE 123971 presented at the SPE AnnualTechnical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 4-7 October. doi: 10.2118/123971-MS.
Batycky, R.P, Seto, A.C., and Fenwick, D.H. 2007. Assisted History Matchingof a 1.4-Million-Cell Simulation Model for Judy Creek 'A' Pool Waterflood/HCMFUsing a Streamline-Based Workflow. Paper SPE 108701 presented at the SPE AnnualTechnical Conference and Exhibition, Anaheim, California, USA, 11-14 November.doi: 10.2118/108701-MS.
Batycky, R.P., Blunt, M.J., and Thiele, M.R. 1997. A 3D Field-ScaleStreamline-Based Reservoir Simulator. SPE Res Eng 12 (4):246-254. SPE-36726-PA. doi:10.2118/36726-PA.
Batycky, R.P., Thiele, M.R., Baker, R.O., and Chugh, S.H. 2008. RevisitingReservoir Flood-Surveillance Methods Using Streamlines. SPE Res Eval &Eng 11 (2): 387-394. SPE-95402-PA. doi: 10.2118/95402-PA.
Beliveau, D. 2009. Waterflooding Viscous Oil Reservoirs. SPE Res Eval& Eng 12 (5): 689-701. SPE-113132-PA. doi: 10.2118/113132-PA.
Chang, H.L., Zhang, Z.Q., Wang, Q.M., Xu, Z.S., Guo, Z.D., Sun, H.Q., Cao,X.L., and Qiao, Q. 2006. Advances in Polymer Flooding andAlkaline/Surfactant/Polymer Processes as Developed and Applied in the People'sRepublic of China. J Pet Technol 58 (2): 84-89.SPE-89175-MS. doi:10.2118/89175-MS.
Craig, F.F. Jr. 1971. The Reservoir Engineering Aspects ofWaterflooding. Monograph Series, SPE, Richardson, Texas, USA 3.
Dake, L.P. 1978. Fundamentals of Reservoir Engineering, No. 8.Amsterdam: Developments in Petroleum Science, Elsevier Science BV.
Di Donato, G., Huang, W., and Blunt, M. 2003. Streamline-Based Dual PorositySimulation of Fractured Reservoirs. Paper SPE 84036 presented at the SPE AnnualTechnical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 5-8 October. doi: 10.2118/84036-MS.
Dong, H.Z., Fang, S.F., Wang, D.M., Wang, J.Y., and Liu, Z. 2008. Review ofPractical Experience & Management by Polymer Flooding at Daqing. Paper SPE114342 presented at the SPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 19-23April. doi:10.2118/114342-MS.
Feng, X., Wen, X.-H., Li, B., Ming, L., Liu, M., Zhou, D., Ye, Q., Hou, D.,Yang, Q., and Lan, L. 2009. Water Injection Optimization for a Complex FluvialHeavy-Oil Reservoir by Integrating Geological, Seismic, and Production Data.SPE Res Eval & Eng 12 (6): 865-878. SPE-110492-PA. doi: 10.2118/110492-PA.
Fenwick, D., Thiele, M., Agil, M., Hussain, A., Humam, F., and Caers, J.2005. Reconciling Prior Geologic Information With Production Data UsingStreamlines: Application to a Giant Middle-Eastern Oil Field. Paper SPE 95940presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 9-12October. doi:10.2118/95940-MS.
Gerritsen, M.G., Mallison, B.T., and Jessen, K.J. In press. A CompositionalFramework for Gas Injection Processes. Computational Geosciences(submitted 2007).
Grinestaff, G.H. 1999. Waterflood Pattern Allocations: Quantifying theInjector to Producer Relationship with Streamline Simulation. Paper SPE 54616presented at the SPE Western Regional Meeting, Anchorage, 26-27 May. doi: 10.2118/54616-MS.
Hirasaki, G.J. and Pope, G.A. 1974. Analysis of Factors Influencing Mobilityand Adsorption in the Flow of Polymer Solution Through Porous Media. SPEJ. 14 (4): 337-346. SPE-4026-PA. doi: 10.2118/4026-PA.
Ibrahim, M.N., Clark, R.A., and Al-Matar, B.S. 2007. Streamline Simulationfor Reservoir Management of a Super Giant: Sabiriyah Field North Kuwait CaseStudy. Paper SPE 105069 presented at the SPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show andConference, Kingdom of Bahrain, 11-14 March. doi: 10.2118/105069-MS.
Kumar, S., Datta-Gupta, A., and Jimenez, E.A. 2009. Understanding ReservoirMechanisms Using Phase and Component Streamline Tracing and Visualization.Paper SPE 124252 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference andExhibition, New Orleans, 4-7 October. doi: 10.2118/124252-MS.
Lake, L.W. 1989. Enhanced Oil Recovery. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey,USA: Prentice Hall.
Lake, L.W., Johnston, J.R., and Stegemeier, G.L. 1981. Simulation andPerformance Prediction of a Large-Scale Surfactant/Polymer Project. SPEJ. 21 (6): 731-739. SPE-7471-PA. doi: 10.2118/7471-PA.
Littman, W. 1988. Polymer Flooding, No. 24. Amsterdam: Developmentsin Petroleum Science, Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.
Milliken, W.J., Emanuel, A.S., and Chakravarty, A. 2001. Applications of 3DStreamline Simulation to Assist History Matching. SPE Res Eval & Eng 4 (6): 502-508. SPE-74712-PA. doi: 10.2118/74712-PA.
Nair, C.V.G. and Al-Maraghi, E. 2006. A Practical Approach in BuildingUpscaled Simulation Model for a Large Middle East Carbonate Reservoir HavingLong Production History. Paper SPE 100270 presented at the SPE Europec/EAGEAnnual Conference and Exhibition, Vienna, Austria, 12-15 June. doi: 10.2118/100270-MS.
Needham R.B. and Doe, P.H 1987. Polymer Flooding Review. J PetTechnol 39 (12): 1503-1507. SPE-17140-PA. doi: 10.2118/17140-PA.
Putz, A.G., Bazin, B., and Pedron, B.M. 1994. Commercial Polymer Injectionin the Courtenay Field, 1994 Update. Paper SPE 28601 presented at SPE AnnualTechnical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 25-28 September. doi: 10.2118/28601-MS.
Ruan, F., Carhart, S., Giordano, R.M., Grinestaff, G.H., and Bratveldt, R.O.2002. An Overview of Streamline Tracer Modeling of Miscible/Immiscible WAGInjection IOR. Paper SPE 75198 presented at the SPE/DOE Improved Oil RecoverySymposium, Tulsa, 13-17 April. doi: 10.2118/75198-MS.
Samier, P., Quettier, L., and Thiele, M. 2002. Applications of StreamlineSimulations to Reservoir Studies. SPE Res Eval & Eng 5(4): 324-332. SPE-78883-PA. doi:10.2118/78883-PA.
Scott, T., Sharpe, S.R., Sorbie, K.S., Clifford, P.J., Roberts, L.J.,Foulser, R.W.S., and Oakes, J.A. 1987. General Purpose Chemical FloodSimulator. Paper SPE 16029 presented at the SPE Symposium on ReservoirSimulation, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 1-4 February. doi: 10.2118/16029-MS.
Seright, R.S., Fan, T., Wavrik, K., and Balaban, R.C. 2010. New Insightsinto Polymer Rheology in Porous Media. Paper SPE 129200 presented at the SPEImproved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 24-28 April. doi: 10.2118/129200-MS.
Slater, G.E. and Farouq-Ali, S.M. 1970. Simulation of Oil Recovery byPolymer Flooding. J Can Pet Technol 9 (4). JCPT Paper No.70-04-05. doi:10.2118/70-04-05.
Thiele, M.R. and Batycky, R.P. 2006. Using Streamline-Derived InjectionEfficiencies for Improved Waterflood Management. SPE Res Eval & Eng 9 (2): 187-196. SPE-84080-PA. doi: 10.2118/84080-PA.
Thiele, M.R., Batycky, R.P., and Fenwick, D.H. 2010a. Streamline Simulationfor Modern Reservoir-Engineering Workflows. J Pet Technol 62 (1): 64-70. SPE-118608-PA. doi: 10.2118/118608-MS.
Thiele, M.R., Batycky, R.P., Pöllitzer, S., and Clemens, T. 2010b.Polymer-Flood Modeling Using Streamlines. SPE Res Eval & Eng 13 (2): 313-322. SPE-115545-PA. doi: 10.2118/115545-PA.
Verma, S., Adibhatla, B., Kaminsky, R., Wattenbarger, C., and Davidson, J.2009. Modeling Polymer Flood in an Unstructured Grid Simulator. Paper SPE118985 presented at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, The Woodlands,Texas, USA, 2-4 February. doi:10.2118/118985-MS.
Willhite, G.P. 1986. Waterflooding. Textbook Series, SPE, Richardson,Texas, USA 3.
Yupu, W. and He, L. 2006. Commercial Success of Polymer Flooding in DaqingOilfield--Lessons Learned. Paper SPE 100855 presented at the SPE Asia PacificOil & Gas Conference and Exhibition, Adelaide, Australia, 11-13 September.doi: 10.2118/100855-MS.
Zeito, G.A. 1968. Three Dimensional Numerical Simulation of Polymer Floodingin Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Systems. Paper SPE 2186 presented at the FallMeeting of the Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME, Houston, 29 September-2October. doi:10.2118/2186-MS.
Zhu, Z., Gerritsen, M.G., and Thiele, M.R. 2009. Thermal StreamlineSimulation For Hot Water Flooding. Paper SPE 119200 presented at the SPEReservoir Simulation Symposium, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 2-4 February. doi: 10.2118/119200-MS.