Modeling Gas-Phase Mass Transfer Between Fracture and Matrix in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs
- Ahmad Jamili (University of Oklahoma) | G. Paul Willhite (Universityof Kansas) | Don Green (Universityof Kansas)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- December 2011
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 795 - 811
- 2011. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.2.2 Fluid Modeling, Equations of State, 5.8.6 Naturally Fractured Reservoir, 5.4.2 Gas Injection Methods
- Naturally fractured reservoir, Compositional simulation, Gas injection
- 2 in the last 30 days
- 660 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Gas injection in naturally fractured reservoirs maintains the reservoir pressure and increases oil recovery primarily by gravity drainage and to a lesser extent by mass transfer between the flowing gas in the fracture and the porous matrix. Although gravity drainage has been studied extensively, there has been limited research on mass-transfer mechanisms between the gas flowing in the fracture and fluids in the porous matrix.
This paper presents a mathematical model that describes the mass transfer between a gas flowing in a fracture and a matrix block. The model accounts for diffusion and convection mechanisms in both gas and liquid phases in the porous matrix. The injected gas diffuses into the porous matrix through gas and liquid phases, causing the vaporization of oil in the porous matrix, which is transported by convection and diffusion to the gas flowing in the fracture. Compositions of equilibrium phases are computed using the Peng-Robinson EOS.
The mathematical model was validated by comparing calculations to two sets of experimental data reported in the literature (Morel et. al. 1990; Le Romancer et. al. 1994), one involving nitrogen (N2) flow in the fracture and the second with carbon dioxide (CO2) flow. The matrix was a chalk. The resident fluid in the porous matrix was a mixture of methane and pentane. In the N2-diffusion experiment, liquid and vapor phases were initially present, while in the CO2 experiment, the matrix was saturated with liquid-hydrocarbon and water phases.
Calculated results were compared with the experimental data, including recovery of each component, saturation profiles, and pressure gradient between matrix and fracture. Agreement was generally good. The simulation revealed the presence of countercurrent flow inside the block. Diffusion was the main mass-transfer mechanism between matrix and fracture during N2 injection. In the CO2 experiment, diffusion and convection were both important.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||17|
da Silva, F.V. and Belery, P. 1989. Molecular Diffusion in NaturallyFractured Reservoirs: A Decisive Recovery Mechanism. Paper SPE 19672 presentedat the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA,8-11 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/19672-MS.
Hu, H., Whitson, C.H., and Qi, Y. 1991. A Study of Recovery Mechanisms in aNitrogen Diffusion Experiment. Paper SPE 21893 available from SPE, Richardson,Texas.
Jamili, A. 2010. Modeling effect of diffusion and gravity on oil recovery innaturally fractured reservoirs under gas injection. PhD dissertation,University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas.
Le Romancer, J.-F.X., Defives, D.F., Kalaydjian, F., and Fernandes, G. 1994.Influence of the diffusing gas on the mechanism of oil recovery by gasdiffusion in fractured reservoir. Presented at the IEA Collaborative Project onEnhanced Oil Recovery Workshop and Symposium, Bergen, Norway, 28-31 August.
Lenormand, R., Le Romancer, J.F., Le Gallo, Y., and Bourbiaux, B. 1998.Modeling the Diffusion Flux Between Matrix and Fissure in a Fissured Reservoir.Paper SPE 49007 Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference andExhibition, New Orleans, 27-30 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/49007-MS.
Morel, D., Latil, M., and Borbiaux, B. 1990. Diffusion effect in gas floodedlight oil fractured reservoirs. SPE Advanced Technology Series 1 (2): 100-109. SPE-20516-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/20516-PA.
Reid, R.C. and Sherwood, T.K. 1977. The Properties of Gases and Liquids:Their Estimation and Correlation, third edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Young, L.C. and Stephenson, R.E. 1983. A Generalized Compositional Approachfor Reservoir Simulation. SPE J. 23 (4): 727-742.SPE-10516-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/10516-PA.