Hole-Cleaning Performance of Gasified Drilling Fluids in Horizontal Well Sections
- Evren M. Ozbayoglu (University of Tulsa) | Reza Ettehadi Osgouei (Middle East Technical University) | Murat A. Ozbayoglu (TOBB Economy & Technology University) | Ertan H. Yuksel (TOBB Economy & Technology University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- September 2012
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 912 - 923
- 2012. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.7.1 Underbalanced Drilling, 5.3.2 Multiphase Flow, 1.11 Drilling Fluids and Materials, 3 Production and Well Operations, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 1.7.7 Cuttings Transport
- 3 in the last 30 days
- 860 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
This study aims to investigate the hole-cleaning process during the flow of a drilling fluid consisting of a gas and a liquid phase through a horizontal annulus. Experiments have been conducted using the Middle East Technical University (METU) multiphase flow loop under a wide range of air- and water-flow rates while introducing cuttings into the annulus for different amounts. Data have been collected for steady-state conditions (i.e., liquid, gas, and cuttings injection rates are stabilized). Collected data include flow rates of liquid and gas phases, frictional pressure drop inside the test section, local pressures at different locations in the flow loop, and high-speed digital images for identification of solid, liquid, and gas distribution inside the wellbore. Digital image-processing techniques are applied on the recorded images for volumetric phase distribution inside the test section, which are in dynamic condition. The effects of liquid and gas phases are investigated on cuttings-transport behavior under different flow conditions. Observations showed that the major contribution for carrying the cuttings along the wellbore is the liquid phase. However, as the gas-flow rate is increased, the flow area left for the liquid phase dramatically decreases, which leads to an increase in the local velocity of the liquid phase causing the cuttings to be dragged and moved, or a significant erosion on the cuttings bed. Therefore, increase in the flow rate of gas phase causes an improvement in the cuttings transport although the liquid-phase flow rate is kept constant. On the basis of the experimental observations, a mechanistic model that estimates the total cuttings concentration and frictional pressure loss inside the wellbore is introduced for gasified fluids flowing through a horizontal annulus. The model estimations are in good agreement with the measurements obtained from the experiments. By using the model, minimum liquid- and gas-flow rates can be identified for having an acceptable cuttings concentration inside the wellbore as well as a preferably low frictional pressure drop. Thus, the information obtained from this study is applicable to any underbalanced drilling operation conducted with gas/liquid mixtures, for optimization of flow rates for liquid and gas phases to transport the cuttings in the horizontal sections in an effective way with a reasonably low frictional pressure loss.
|File Size||5 MB||Number of Pages||12|
Azbel, D. 1981. Two-phase flows in chemical engineering, Part I, Sec.6, 121-123, 147. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Caetano, E.F., Shoham, O., and Brill, J.P. 1992. Upward VerticalTwo-Phase Flow Through an Annulus—Part I: Single-Phase Friction Factor, TaylorBubble Rise Velocity, and Flow Pattern Prediction. J. Energy Resour.Technol. 114 (1): 1-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.2905917.
Chen, J.-T., Tsai, M.-H., and Liu, C.-S. 2009. Conformal mapping andbipolar coordinate for eccentric Laplace problems. Computer Applications inEngineering Education 17 (3): 314-322. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cae.20208.
Chen, N.H. 1979. An Explicit Equation for Friction Factor in Pipe. Ind.Eng. Chem. Fundam. 18 (3): 296-297. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/i160071a019.
Cheng, K.C. and Hwang, G.-J. 1968. Laminar forced convection in eccentricannuli. AIChE J. 14 (3): 510-512. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aic.690140334.
Doan, Q.T., Oguztoreli, M., Masuda, Y., Yonezawa, T., Kobayashi, A., andKamp, A. 2000. Modelling of Transient Cuttings Transport in UnderbalancedDrilling. Paper SPE 62742 presented at the IADC/SPE Asia Pacific DrillingTechnology, Kuala Lumpur, 11-13 September http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/62742-MS.
Gonzalez, R.C. and Woods, R.E. 1993. Digital Image Processing.Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing.
Guo, B. and Ghalambor, A. 2002. Gas Volume Requirements for UnderbalancedDrilling: Deviated Holes. Tulsa, Oklahoma: PennWell Books.
Ishii, M. 1977. One-dimensional drift-flux model and constitutive equationsfor relative motion between phases in various two-phase flow regimes. TechnicalReport ANL-77-47, DOE Contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38, Argonne NationalLaboratory, Argonne, Illinois (01 October 1977). http://dx.doi.org/10.2172/6871478.
Li, J. and Walker, S. 2001. Sensitivity Analysis of Hole Cleaning Parametersin Directional Wells. SPE J. 6 (4): 356-363. SPE-74710-PA.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/74710-PA.
Manninen, M., Tavassalo, V., and Kallio, S. 1996. On the mixture modelfor multiphase flow, No. 288. Espoo, Finland: Technical Research Centre ofFinland, VTT Publications.
Mendez, J.R. 2002. An experimental study of cuttings transport inhorizontal wells with aerated fluids and drillpipe rotation. MSc thesis,The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma.
Ozbayoglu, M.E. 2002. Cuttings Transport with Foam in Horizontal andHighly Inclined Wellbores. PhD dissertation, The University of Tulsa,Tulsa, Oklahoma.
Prusa, J. and Yao, L.S. 1983. Natural Convection Heat Transfer BetweenEccentric Horizontal Cylinders. J. Heat Transfer 105 (1):108-116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.3245527.
Rankin, M.D., Friesenhahn, T.J., and Price, W.R. 1989. Lightened FluidHydraulics and Inclined Boreholes. Paper SPE 18670 presented at the SPE/IADCDrilling Conference, New Orleans, 28 February-3 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/18670-MS.
Slattery, J.C. 1999. Advanced Transport Phenomena. Cambridge, UK:Cambridge Series in Chemical Engineering, Cambridge University Press.
Sunthankar, A.A. 2002. Study of the flow of aerated drilling fluids inannulus under ambient temperature and pressure conditions. MSc thesis, TheUniversity of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma.
Taitel, Y. and Dukler, A.E. 1976. A model for predicting flow regimetransitions in horizontal and near horizontal gas-liquid flow. AIChE J. 22 (1): 47-55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aic.690220105.
Tian, S., Medley, G.H., and Stone, C.R. 2000. Optimization circulation whiledrilling underbalanced. World Oil 221 (6).
Tosun, I. and Özgen, C. 1987. Application of geometric inversion to theeccentric annulus system. AIChE J. 33 (11): 1903-1907. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aic.690331119.
Trombetta, M.L. 1971. Laminar forced convection in eccentric annuli. Int.J. Heat Mass Transfer 14 (8): 1161-1173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0017-9310(71)90211-0.
Vieria, P. 2000. Determination of minimum water-air rates required foreffective cuttings transport in high angle and horizontal wells. MScthesis, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma.
Yao, L.S. 1980. Analysis of Heat Transfer in Slightly Eccentric Annuli.J. Heat Transfer 102 (2): 279-284. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.3244274.
Zhou, L. 2004. Cuttings transport with aerated muds in horizontal annulusunder elevated pressure and temperature conditions. PhD dissertation, TheUniversity of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma.