Application of Multirate Tests to Scale Management: Part 1--Interpretation of Produced-Water Analyses
- Ross A. McCartney (Oilfield Water Services Limited) | Tore Tjomsland (Statoil ASA) | Bernt Sandøy (Statoil ASA) | Finn H. Fadnes (Statoil ASA)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- May 2012
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 211 - 222
- 2012. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.6.1 Open hole/cased hole log analysis, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 4.3.4 Scale, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 1.8 Formation Damage, 3 Production and Well Operations, 3.3.1 Production Logging, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control
- produced water analyses, Multi-rate separator test, Production logging
- 3 in the last 30 days
- 561 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Several multirate separator tests (MRTs) have been undertaken on wells in the Veslefrikk field that are on commingled production from the Brent Group and Intra Dunlin Sand. During these tests, produced-water samples were also collected. Integrated analysis of the results of interpretion of the produced-water analyses and the MRT results have provided a range of information for each production zone including the nature and composition of the produced water, seawater fraction of these produced waters, fraction of total water flow being produced, pressure, productivity index, oil and water rates, and water cut. This information can reduce the need for deploying production-logging tools (PLTs), allows the scaling potential between the deeper and the shallower zones to be evaluated, aids squeeze-treatment design, is beneficial for predicting formation damage from crossflow, and aids water-shutoff decisions.
In this paper, the methods of interpreting the produced-water analyses are presented through the use of a field example. To aid interpretation, interpretation of other produced-water analyses from the field and reactive-transport modeling have been undertaken to better understand reactions occurring in the reservoir as a result of seawater injection and the effects of these reactions on produced-water compositions. In an accompanying paper (Tjomsland et al. 2011), the integrated MRT-analysis techniques are described and the results and applications of additional field examples are presented.
|File Size||3 MB||Number of Pages||12|
Appelo, C.A.J. and Postma, D. 1999. Geochemistry, Groundwater andPollution. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: A.A. Balkema.
Bethke, C.M. 2009. The Geochemist's Workbench--A User's Guide to Rxn, Act2,Tact, React and Gtplot, Release 8.0. Urbana, Illinois: University ofIllinois.
Graham, A.L., Boak, L.S., Neville, A., and Sorbie, K.S. 2005. How MinimumInhibitor Concentration (MIC) and sub-MIC concentrations affect bulkprecipitation and surface scaling rates. Paper SPE 93311 presented at the SPEInternational Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, 2-4 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/93311-MS.
Houston, S.J., Yardley, B.W.D., Smalley, P.C., and Collins, I. 2007. Rapidfluid-rock interaction in oilfield reservoirs. Geology 35(12): 1143-1146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/G24264A.1.
Johnson, J.W., Oelkers, E.H., and Helgeson, H.C. 1992. SUPCRT92: A softwarepackage for calculating the standard molal thermodynamic properties ofminerals, gases, aqueous species, and reactions from 1 to 5000 bars and 0 to1000°C. Computers & Geosciences 18 (7): 899-947. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0098-3004(92)90029-Q.
Mackay, E.J, Jordan, M.M., and Torabi, F. 2003. Predicting Brine Mixing Deepwithin the Reservoir, and the Impact on Scale Control in Marginal and DeepwaterDevelopments. SPE Prod & Fac 18 (3): 210-220. SPE-85104-PA.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/85104-PA.
Mackay, E.J. 2003. Predicting in-situ sulphate scale deposition and theimpact on produced ion concentrations. Trans IChemE 81 (A):326-332.
Mackay, E.J. and Jordan, M.M. 2003. Natural Sulphate Ion Stripping duringSeawater Flooding in Chalk Reservoirs. Presented at the RSC Chemistry in theOil Industry VIII Conference, Manchester, UK, 3-5 November.
Mackay, E.J., Sorbie, K.S., Kavle, V., Sørhaug, E., Melvin, K., Sjursæther,K., and Jordan, M.M. 2006. Impact of In-Situ Sulphate Stripping on ScaleManagement in the Gyda Field. Paper SPE 100516 prepared for the SPEInternational Oilfield Scale Symposium, Aberdeen, 31 May-1 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/100516-MS.
Mahadevan, J., Lake, L.W., and Johns, R.T. 2003. Estimation of TrueDispersivity in Field-Scale Permeable Media. SPE J. 8 (3):272-279. SPE-86303-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/86303-PA.
McCartney, R.A., Burgos, A., and Sørhaug, E. 2010a. Changing the InjectionWater on the Blane Field, North Sea: A Novel Approach to Predicting the Effecton the Produced Water BaSO4 Scaling Risk. Paper SPE 130624 presented at the SPEInternational Conference on Oilfield Scalee, 26-27 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/130624-MS.
McCartney, R.A., Melvin, K., Wright, R., and Sørhaug, E. 2007. Seawaterinjection into reservoirs with ion exchange properties and high sulphatescaling tendencies: Modelling of reactions and implications for scalemanagement, with specific application to the Gyda Field. Presented at the 18thInternational Oil Field Chemistry Symposium, Geilo, Norway, 25-28 March.
McCartney, R.A., Moldrheim, E., and Fleming, N. 2010b. Detection andquantification of Utsira Formation Water in production wells of the Oseberg Sørfield and impact on scale management. Presented at the 21st International OilField Chemistry Symposium, Geilo, Norway,15-17 March.
MultiScale™ Version 6.1 User Manual. 2003. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: PetrotechKnowledge AS.
Østvold, T., Mackay, E.J., McCartney, R.A., Davis, I., and Aune, E. 2010.Re-development of the Frøy Field: Selection of the Injection Water. Paper SPE130567 presented at the SPE International Conference on Oilfield Scale,Aberdeen, 26-27 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/130567-MS.
Paulo, J., Mackay, E.J., Menzies, N., and Poynton, N. 2001. Implications ofBrine Mixing in the Reservoir for Scale Management in the Alba Field. Paper SPE68310 presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Scale, Aberdeen,30-31 January. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/68310-MS.
Sánchez-Romáin, M., McKenzie, J.A., de Luca Rebello Wagener, A.,Rivadeneyra, M.A., and Vasconcelos, C. 2009. Presence of sulphate does notinhibit low-temperature dolomite precipitation. Earth and Planetary ScienceLetters 285 (1-2): 131-139. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2009.06.003.
Siegel, F.R. 1961. Factors influencing the precipitation of dolomiticcarbonates. Geological Survey of Kansas Bulletin 152 (5):129-158.
Sorbie, K.S. and MacKay, E.J. 2000. Mixing of injected, connate and aquiferbrines in waterflooding and its relevance to oilfield scaling. J. Pet. Sci.Eng. 27 (1-2): 85-106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(00)00050-4.
Tjomsland, T., Sandøy, B., Fadnes, F.H., and McCartney, R.A. 2010.Application of Multi-rate Well Tests to Scale Management. Paper SPE 131011presented at the SPE International Conference on Oilfield Scale, Aberdeen,26-27 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/131011-MS.
Tjomsland, T., Sandøy, B., Fadnes, F.H., and McCartney, R.A. 2011.Application of Multi-Rate Well Tests (MRT) to Scale Management. Part 2:Interpretation of MRTs With Known Produced Water Origin. SPE Prod &Oper. SPE-131011-PA (in press; posted 27 July 2011).