The Effect of Redox Potential and Metal Solubility on Oxidative Polymer Degradation
- David B. Levitt (Total Petrochemicals) | Will Slaughter (Chevron) | Gary Pope (University of Texas at Austin) | Stephane Jouenne (Total Petrochemicals)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- June 2011
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 287 - 298
- 2011. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.3.1 Hydrates, 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant), 5.4.7 Chemical Flooding Methods (e.g., Polymer, Solvent, Nitrogen, Immiscible CO2, Surfactant, Vapex), 4.2.3 Materials and Corrosion
- Polyacrylamide, Iron, Fenton, Redox, Oxidation
- 4 in the last 30 days
- 816 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Oxidative degradation of polymers is a serious concern in their field application for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). This study is an attempt to resolve some of the discrepancies in the literature regarding the occurrence and extent of this degradation, as well as to present a coherent framework for discussing the multitude of possible radical reactions. Sodium carbonate and bicarbonate are demonstrated to play a key role in stabilizing polymer against multiple reported sources of degradation, and it seems likely that this is caused by their effect on iron solubility. Brines containing iron in the reduced state are often obtained from aquifers for use in polymer hydration. These brines are shown to be prone to causing immediate degradation if exposed to air during or after polymer hydration because of the oxidation of soluble iron. If this cannot be avoided, preaeration may be a feasible strategy to minimize degradation during hydration. However, care must be taken to ensure subsequent degradation is not caused by the injection of a polymer solution containing oxygen into a formation containing iron. For instance, sodium dithionite can be added downstream of the last exposure to oxygen. The use of sodium carbonate may also mitigate degradation caused by the oxidation of iron (II) during polymer hydration.
|File Size||550 KB||Number of Pages||12|
Afanas'ev, I.B. 1989. Superoxide Ion: Chemistry and BiologicalImplications. Volume I. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press.
Baas Becking, L.G.M., Kaplan, I.R., and Moore, D. 1960. Limits of theNatural Environment in Terms of pH and Oxidation-Reduction Potentials. J. ofGeology 68 (3): 243-284. doi:10.1086/626659.
de Carvalho, L.M. and Schwedt, G. 2001. Polarographic determination ofdithionite and its decomposition products: kinetic aspects, stabilizers, andanalytical application. Analytica Chimica Acta 436 (2):293-300. doi:10.1016/S0003-2670(01)00921-7.
Dunford, H.B. 2002.Oxidations of iron(II)/(III) by hydrogen peroxide: fromaquo to enzyme. Coordination Chemistry Reviews 233-234 (1November 2002): 311-318. doi:10.1016/S0010-8545(02)00024-3.
Fenton, H.J.H. 1894. Oxidation of tartaric acid in presence of iron. J.Chem. Soc., Trans. 65: 899-911. doi:10.1039/ct8946500899.
Foshee, W.C., Jennings, R.R., and West, T.J. 1976. Preparation and Testingof Partially Hydrolyzed Polyacrylamide Solutions. Paper SPE 6202 presented atthe SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 3-6 October.doi: 10.2118/6202-MS.
Hem, J.D. 1961. Stability Field Diagrams as Aids in Iron Chemistry Studies.Jour. Am. Water Works Assoc. 53 (2): 211-232.
Kheradmand, H. 1987. Contribution a l'etude de la degradation et lastabilisation de polyacrylamides en solution aqueuse. PhD thesis, UniversitéLouis-Pasteur (ULP), Strasbourg, France.
Knight, B.L. 1973. Reservoir Stability of Polymer Solutions. J PetTechnol 25 (5): 618-626; Trans., AIME, 255.SPE-4167-PA. doi:10.2118/4167-PA.
Levitt, D.B., Pope, G.A., and Jouenne, S. 2011. Chemical Degradation ofPolyacrylamide Polymers Under Alkaline Conditions. SPE Res Eng 13 (3). SPE-129879-PA. doi: 10.2118/129879-PA.
Muller, G. 1981a. Thermal stability of high-molecular-weight polyacrylamideaqueous solutions. Polymer Bulletin 5 (1): 31-37. doi: 10.1007/BF00255084.
Muller, G. 1981b. Thermal stability of polyacrylamide solutions: effect ofresidual impurities in the molecular-weight-degradation process upon heating.Polymer Bulletin 5 (1): 39-45. doi:10.1007/BF00255085.
Muller, G., Fenyo, J.C., and Selegny, E. 1980. High molecular weighthydrolyzed polyacrylamides. III. Effect of temperature on chemical stability.J. of Applied Polymer Science 25 (4): 627-633. doi:10.1002/app.1980.070250409.
Pourbaix, M. 1963. Atlas D'Equilibres Electrochimiques. Paris:Gauthier-Villars.
Pye, D.J. 1967. Water Flooding Process. US Patent No. 3,343,601.
Ramsden, D.K. and McKay, K. 1986. The degradation of polyacrylamide inaqueous solution induced by chemically generated hydroxyl radicals: PartII—Autoxidation of Fe2+. Polymer Degradation and Stability 15 (1): 15-31. doi:10.1016/0141-3910(86)90003-0.
Rice, R.G. and Wilkes, J.F. 1994. Ozone chemistry applied to cooling towerwater treatment. Chemical Oxidation 2: 78-111.
Rinker, R.G., Gordon, T.P., Mason, D.M., and Corcoran, W.H. 1959. ThePresence of the SO2 Radical Ion in Aqueous Solutions of Sodium Dithionite.J. Phys. Chem. 63: 302.
Shafer, R.V. and Pirson, S.J. 1969. Characterization of Oilfield Waters bypH and Oxidation-Reduction Potential. Paper SPE 2592 presented at the FallMeeting of the Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME, Denver, 28 September-1October. doi:10.2118/2592-MS.
Shupe, R.D. 1981. Chemical Stability of Polyacrylamide Polymers. J PetTechnol 33 (8): 1513-1529. SPE-9299-PA. doi: 10.2118/9299-PA.
Stumm, W. and Morgan, J.J. 1970. Aquatic Chemistry: Chemical Equilibriaand Rates in Natural Water. New York City: John Wiley & Sons.
Wang, F.H.L. 1993. Effects of Reservoir Anaerobic, Reducing Conditions onSurfactant Retention in Chemical Flooding. SPE Res Eng 8(2): 108-116. SPE-22648-PA. doi:10.2118/22648-PA.
Wang, F.H.L. and Guidry, L.J. 1994. Effect of Oxidation-Reduction Conditionon Wettability Alteration. SPE Form Eval 9 (2): 140-148;Trans., AIME, 297. SPE-20504-PA. doi: 10.2118/20504-PA.
Yang, S.H. and Treiber, L.E. 1985. Chemical Stability of PolyacrylamideUnder Simulated Field Conditions. Paper SPE 14232 presented at the SPE AnnualTechnical Conference and Exhibition, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, 22-26 September.doi: 10.2118/14232-MS.
Zobell, C.E. 1946. Studies on Redox Potential of Marine Sediments. AAPGBulletin 30 (4): 477-513.