Impact of Organic Acids/Chelating Agents on the Rheological Properties of an Amidoamine-Oxide Surfactant
- Hisham A. Nasr-El-Din (Texas A&M University) | Lingling Li (Texas A&M University) | James B. Crews (Baker Hughes) | Kay E. Cawiezel (BJ Services Company)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- February 2011
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 30 - 40
- 2011. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.4.10 Microbial Methods, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant), 4.2.3 Materials and Corrosion, 3.2.4 Acidising
- 3 in the last 30 days
- 914 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Surfactant-based acids have been used for diversion because they are less damaging to the formation. Amphoteric viscoelastic surfactant (VES) is the main type of surfactant being used today. Low viscosity is observed in the live-acid systems, whereas significantly increased viscosity is found when HCl reacts with carbonate and generates divalent salts. The surfactant/acid system can be broken after acid treatments by mixing with reservoir hydrocarbons, or by using an external or internal breaker.
Amidoamine oxide, an amphoteric surfactant, was examined in this work. The prepared surfactant-based live-acid system contained 20 wt% HCl, 4 wt% surfactant, and 1 wt% corrosion inhibitor. Different organic acids/chelating agents were added to live and spent acids. Calcium carbonate particles were used to neutralize live acids. The objective was to examine how these organic acids/chelating agents affected the rheological properties of spent-acid systems. Measurements were made at temperatures from 75 to 200°F at a shear rate of 10 sec-1 and a pressure of 300 psi. Several simple organic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, and butyric) and chelating agents [glycolic acid, lactic acid, gluconic acid, citric acid, tetrasodium ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), tetrasodium L-glutamic acid, N, N-diacetic acid (GLDA), and disodium L-glutamic acid, N, N-diacetic acid (HEIDA)] that are used in the field were examined.
Experimental results indicated that the addition of simple organic acids or chelating agents reduced the viscosity of spent acids significantly. This reduction in viscosity increased with the number of carbon atoms in the organic acid. The addition of organic acids reduced the temperature range in which the surfactant can be used. Chelating agents (a-hydroxy carboxylic acids and amino carboxylic acids) also tended to break the surfactant gel if enough chelant was used. On the basis of the results obtained, organic acids can be used to break surfactant gel. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) tests were first conducted to examine how organic acids/chelating agents interfered with the formation of rod-like micelles in the surfactant-based acid. The results showed that the addition of organic acids to the spent acid generated a fewer elongated micelles and resulted in less apparent viscosity. In addition, if chelating agents or simple organic acids are used, then the concentration of the surfactant should be increased to compensate for the loss of viscosity induced by the addition of the organic acids.
|File Size||846 KB||Number of Pages||11|
Al-Muhareb, M.A., Nasr-El-Din, H.A., Samuel, E., Marcinew, R.P., and Samuel,M. 2003. Acid Fracturing of PowerWater Injectors: A New Field Application Using Polymer-free Fluids. PaperSPE 82210 presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference, The Hague,13-14 May. doi: 10.2118/82210-MS.
Al-Mutawa, M., Al-Anzi, E., Jemmali, M., Chang, F., Samuel, E., and Samuel,M. 2005. Zero-Damaging Stimulationand Diversion Fluid: Field Cases from the Carbonate Formations in NorthKuwait. SPE Prod & Fac 20 (2): 94-105.SPE-80225-PA. doi: 10.2118/80225-PA.
Al-Nakhli, A.R., Nasr-El-Din, H.A., and Al-Baiyat, A.A. 2008. Interactions of Iron andViscoelastic Surfactants: A New Formation-Damage Mechanism. Paper SPE112465 presented at the SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on FormationDamage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA, 13-15 February. doi:10.2118/112465-MS.
Bakken, V. and Schöffel, K. 1996. Semi-Quantitative Study ofChelating Agents Suitable for Removal of Scale. Oil & Gas Scienceand Technology 51 (1): 151-160. doi: 10.2516/ogst:1996014.
Cawiezel, K.E. and Dawson, J.C. 2007. Method of acidizing a subterraneanformation with diverting foam or fluid. US Patent No. 7,303,018.
Chang, F., Qu, Q., and Frenier, W. 2001. A Novel Self-Diverting Acid Developedfor Matrix Stimulation of Carbonate Reservoirs. Paper SPE 65033 presentedat the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, Houston, 13-16February. doi: 10.2118/65033-MS.
Chang, F.F., Qu, Q., and Miller, M.J. 2002. Fluid System Having ControllableReversible Viscosity. US Patent No. 6,399,546.
Crews, J.B. 2005. InternalPhase Breaker Technology for Viscoelastic Surfactant Gelled Fluids. Paper93449 presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry,Houston, 2-4 February. doi: 10.2118/93449-MS.
Crews, J.B. and Huang, T. 2007. Internal Breakers for ViscoelasticSurfactant Fracturing Fluids. Paper SPE 106216 presented at theInternational Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 28February-2 March. doi: 10.2118/106216-MS.
Fu, D. and Chang, F. 2005. Compositions and methods for treating asubterranean formation. US Patent No. 6,929,070.
Huang, T. and Crews, J.B. 2008. Do Viscoelastic-Surfactant DivertingFluids for Acid Treatments Need Internal Breakers? Paper SPE 112484presented at the SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on FormationDamage, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA, 13-15 February. doi: 10.2118/112484-MS.
Li, L., Nasr-El-Din, H.A., and Cawiezel, K.E. 2009. Impact of Acid Additives and Fe(III) on the Rheological Properties of a New Class of ViscoelasticSurfactant. Paper SPE 121716 presented at the SPE International Symposiumon Oilfield Chemistry, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 20-22 April. doi:10.2118/121716-MS.
Lungwitz, B., Fredd, C., Brady, M., Miller, M., Ali, S., and Hughes, K.2007. Diversion and CleanupStudies of Viscoelastic Surfactant-Based Self-Diverting Acid. SPE Prod& Oper 22 (1): 121-127. SPE-86504-PA. doi:10.2118/86504-PA.
Nasr-El-Din, H.A. and Samuel, M. 2007. Lessons Learned From UsingViscoelastic Surfactants in Well Stimulation. SPE Prod & Oper 22 (1): 112-120. SPE-90383-PA. doi: 10.2118/90383-PA.
Nasr-El-Din, H.A., Al-Driweesh, S., Al-Muntasheri, G., Marcinew, R.,Daniels, J., and Samuel, M. 2003. Acid Fracturing of HT/HP Gas WellsUsing a Novel Surfactant Based Fluid System. Paper SPE 84516 presented atthe SPE Annual Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 5-8 October. doi:10.2118/84516-MS.
Nasr-El-Din, H.A., Al-Habib, N.S., Al-Mumen, A.A., Jemmali, M., and Samuel,M. 2006. A New EffectiveStimulation Treatment for Long Horizontal Wells Drilled in CarbonateReservoirs. SPE Prod & Oper 21 (3): 330-338.SPE-86516-PA. doi: 10.2118/86516-PA.
Nasr-El-Din, H.A., Chesson, J.B., Cawiezel, K., and Devine C.S. 2006b. Investigation and Field Evaluation ofa Foamed Viscoelastic Surfactant Diversion Fluid Applied During Coiled-TubingMatrix-Acid Treatment. Paper SPE 99651 presented at the SPE/CoTA CoiledTubing and Well Intervention Conference and Exhibition, The Woodlands, Texas,USA, 4-5 April. doi: 10.2118/99651-MS.
Nasr-El-Din, H.A., Chesson, J.B., Cawiezel, K., and Devine C.S. 2006c. Lessons Learned and Guidelines forMatrix Acidizing With Viscoelastic Surfactant Diversion in CarbonateFormations. Paper SPE 102468 presented at the SPE Annual TechnicalConference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 24-27 September. doi:10.2118/102468-MS.
Nasr-El-Din, H.A., Chesson, J.B., Cawiezel, K., and Devine, C.S. 2006d. Field Success in Carbonate AcidDiversion, Utilizing Laboratory Data Generated by Parallel Flow Testing.Paper SPE 102828 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference andExhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 24-27 September. doi:10.2118/102828-MS.
Nasr-El-Din, H.A., Driweesh, S.M., and Muntasheri, G.A. 2003. Field Application of HCl-Formic AcidSystem to Acid Fracture Deep Gas Wells Completed with Super Cr-13 Tubing inSaudi Arabia. Paper SPE 84925 presented at the SPE International ImprovedOil Recovery Conference in Asia Pacific, Kuala Lumpur, 20-21 October. doi:10.2118/84925-MS.
Nasr-El-Din, H.A., Driweesh, S.M., Sierra, L., van Domelen, M., and Welton,T. 2006. Long-Term ComparativeEvaluation of HCl/Formic Acid System Used To Stimulate Carbonate Formations atSevere Conditions in Saudi Arabia. Paper SPE 103978 presented at the FirstInternational Oil Conference and Exhibition in Mexico, Cancun, Mexico, 31August-2 September. doi: 10.2118/103978-MS.
Nasr-El-Din, H.A., Samuel, E., and Samuel, M. 2003b. Application of New Class ofSurfactants in Stimulation Treatments. Paper SPE 84898 presented at the SPEInternational Improved Oil Recovery Conference in Asia Pacific, Kuala Lumpur,20-21 October. doi: 10.2118/84898-MS.
Nelson, E.B., Lungwitz, B., Dismuke, K., Samuel, M., Salamat, G., Hughes,T., Lee, J. et al. 2005. Viscosity reduction of viscoelastic based fluids. USPatent No. 6,881,709.
Qu, Q., Nelson, E.B., Willberg, D.M., Samuel, E.E., Lee, J.C. Jr., Chang,F.F., Card, R.J., Vinod, P.S., Brown, J.E., and Thomas, R.L. 2002. Compositionscontaining aqueous viscosifying surfactants and methods for applying suchcompositions in subterranean formations. US Patent No. 6,435,277.
Samuel, M., Marcinew, R., Al-Harbi, M., Samuel, E., Xiao, Z., Ezzat, A.M.,Khamees, S.A. et al. 2003. A NewSolids-Free Non-Damaging High Temperature Lost-Circulation Pill: Developmentand First Field Applications. Paper SPE 81494 presented at the Middle EastOil Show, Bahrain, 9-12 June. doi: 10.2118/81494-MS.
Welton, T.D. and van Domelen, M.S. 2008. High-Viscosity-Yield Acid Systems forHigh-Temperature Stimulation. SPE Prod & Oper 23(2): 177-183. doi: 10.2118/98237-PA.