Impact of Water Dynamics in Fractures on the Performance of Hydraulically Fractured Wells in Gas-Shale Reservoirs
- Yueming Cheng (West Virginia University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- March 2012
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 143 - 151
- 2012. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.8.2 Shale Gas, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 1.8 Formation Damage, 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant), 3 Production and Well Operations
- Gas shale, Horizontal well, Multi-stage hydraulic fracturing, Slick water dynamics, Production performance
- 29 in the last 30 days
- 1,946 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Slickwater fracturing has been increasingly applied to stimulate unconventional shale-gas reservoirs. Comparing with crosslinked fluids, slickwater used as a fracturing fluid has several advantages, including low cost, a higher possibility of creating complex fracture networks, less formation damage, and ease of cleanup. An enormous amount of water is injected into the formation during the treatment. Even with a good recovery of injected water from flowback, large quantities of water are still left within the reservoir.
The dynamics of the water phase within the created hydraulic fractures and reactivated natural fractures (induced fractures) has significant impact on both short- and long-term performance of a hydraulically fractured well. The dynamics of the water phase within fractures is controlled by many mechanisms, such as relative permeability, capillary pressure, gravity segregation, and stress-sensitive fracture conductivities. In this paper, reservoir-simulation models for a generic gas-shale reservoir are constructed to investigate the changes of water-saturation distribution in fractures over time during production and their impact on gas-production performance. It is demonstrated that water imbibitions caused by capillary pressure and gravity segregation can play important roles in water-saturation distribution and redistribution, particularly during extended shut-in, which in turn affects gas flow significantly. Moreover, an unfavorable combination of relative permeability, capillary pressure, stress-sensitive fracture conductivities, and invasion-zone permeability damage can lead to water-blockage problems.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||9|
Barree, R.D., Cox, S.A., Barree, V.L., and Conway, M.W. 2003. RealisticAssessment of Proppant Pack Conductivity for Material Selection. Paper SPE84306 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver,5-8 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/84306-MS.
Bennion, D.B., Tomas, F.B., and Bietz, R.F. 1996. Low Permeability GasReservoirs: Problems, Opportunities and Solutions for Drilling, Completion,Stimulation and Production. Paper SPE 35577 presented at the SPE Gas TechnologyConference, Calgary, 28 April-1 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/35577-MS.
Cipolla, C.L., Lolon, E., Erdle, J., and Tathed, V.S. 2009. Modeling WellPerformance in Shale-Gas Reservoirs. Paper SPE 125532 presented at the SPE/EAGEReservoir Characterization and Simulation Conference, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 19-21October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/125532-MS.
Economides, M.J. and Martin, T. ed. 2007. Modern Fracturing--EnhancingNatural Gas Production. Houston, Texas: Energy Tribune Publishing.
Fredd, C.N., McConnell, S.B., Boney, C.L., and England, K.W. 2001.Experimental Study of Fracture Conductivity for Water-Fracturing andConventional Fracturing Applications. SPE J. 6 (3):288-298. SPE-74138-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/74138-PA.
Gdanski, R.D., Fulton, D.D., and Shen, C. 2009. Fracture-Face-Skin EvolutionDuring Cleanup. SPE Prod & Oper 24 (1): 22-34.SPE-101083-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/101083-PA.
Holditch, S.A. 1979. Factors Affecting Water Blocking and Gas Flow FromHydraulically Fractured Gas Wells. J Pet Technol 31 (12):1515-1524. SPE-7561-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/7561-PA.
Kamath, J. and Laroche, C. 2003. Laboratory-Based Evaluation of Gas WellDeliverability Loss Caused by Water Blocking. SPE J. 8 (1):71-80. SPE-83659-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/83659-PA.
Mahadevan, J., Le, D.H., and Hoang, H.N. 2009. Impact of Capillary Suctionon Fracture Face Skin Evolution in Waterblocked Wells. Paper SPE 119585presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands,Texas, USA, 19-21 January. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/119585-MS.
Paktinat, J., Pinkhouse, J.A., Johnson, N.J. et al. 2006. Case Study:Optimizing Hydraulic Fracturing Performance in Northeastern United StatesFractured Shale Formations. Paper SPE-104306 presented at the SPE EasternRegional Meeting, Canton, Ohio, USA, 11-13 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/104306-MS.
Paktinat, J., Pinkhouse, J.A., Little, J.B., Lash, G.G., and Penny, G.S.2007. Investigation of Methods to Improve Utica Shale Hydraulic Fracturing inthe Appalachian Basin. Paper SPE 111063 presented at the Eastern RegionalMeeting, Lexington, Kentucky, USA, 17-19 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/111063-MS.
Palisch, T.T., Vincent, M.C., and Handren, P.J. 2008. SlickwaterFracturing--Food for Thought. Paper SPE 115766 presented at the SPE AnnualTechnical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 21-24 September. doi:10.2118/115766-MS.
Satyanarayana Gupta, D.V. and Valko, P. 2007. Fracturing Fluids andFormation Damage. In Modern Fracturing--Enhancing Natural GasProduction, ed. M.J. Economides and T. Martin. Houston, Texas: EnergyTribune Publishing.
Schein, G. 2005. The Application and Technology of Slickwater Fracturing.Paper SPE 108807 presented as a Distinguished Lecture during the 2004-2005season.
Settari, A., Sullivan, R.B., and Bachman, R.C. 2002. The Modeling of theEffect of Water Blockage and Geomechanics in Waterfrac. Paper SPE 77600presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio,Texas, USA, 29 September-2 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/77600-MS.
Warpinski, N.R., Kramm, R.C., Heinze, J.R., and Waltman, C.K. 2005.Comparison of Single- and Dual-Array Microseismic Mapping Techniques in theBarnett Shale. Paper SPE 95568 presented at the SPE Annual TechnologyConference and Exhibition, Dallas, 9-12 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/95568-MS.