Experimental and Numerical Modeling of Three-Phase Flow Under High-Pressure Air Injection
- Eider Niz-Velásquez (Shell Canada Limited) | Gordon Moore (University of Calgary) | Kees C. van Fraassen (University of Calgary) | Sudarshan A. Mehta (University of Calgary) | Matthew G. Ursenbach (University of Calgary)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- October 2010
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 782 - 790
- 2010. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 5.4 Enhanced Recovery, 4.1.9 Tanks and storage systems, 5.5.8 History Matching
- hysteresis, relative permeability, in-situ combustion, high-pressure air injection, three-phase flow
- 1 in the last 30 days
- 709 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
In this paper, an improved characterization of three-phase flow under high-pressure-air-injection (HPAI) conditions was achieved on the basis of experimental results and numerical reservoir simulation.
A three-phase coreflood experiment was conducted at reservoir conditions, using 37°API stock-tank oil, an 84% nitrogen and 16% carbon dioxide flue-gas mixture, and 3% potassium chloride brine. The aim of the test was to evaluate the effects that the highly liquid-saturated front produced by the thermal reactions has on the mobility of each phase. Departing from connate-water saturation and reservoir pressure and temperature, sequential injection of water, gas, and oil was carried out, followed by a final gasflood to residual liquid saturation. Other two- and three-phase tests performed on this rock specimen were published elsewhere (Niz-Velásquez et al. 2009). Numerical history matching was employed to determine oil/water and liquid/gas relative permeability (kr) curves for both imbibition and drainage cases. A combustion-tube (CT) test was simulated using conventional kr curves and a set that included hysteresis. The degree of hysteresis observed during the coreflood test was maintained for the CT simulation.
History matching of the coreflood showed that kr to the gas phase is much smaller during liquid reimbibition than during drainage. The use of gas-phase hysteresis for the CT test allows for a better matching of liquid volumes and pressure drop. Analysis of the simulated data suggests that the reduction in gas-phase mobility encourages an early increase in the oil rate, which is more consistent with experimental data than what is predicted by a model with conventional kr. The analysis also reveals that water distilled below the saturated steam temperature plays an important role in the increase of liquid saturation and oil mobilization.
The improved characterization of relative permeability considering gas-phase hysteresis for simulating HPAI enhances the predictive capability of available commercial simulators, providing a more certain method to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of a project. The ability to predict an early increase in oil rate, consistent with experimental observations, results in improved economics for the project.
|File Size||688 KB||Number of Pages||9|
Beattie, C.I., Boberg, T.C., and McNab, G.S. 1991. Reservoir Simulation of Cyclic SteamStimulation in the Cold Lake Oil Sands. SPE Res Eng 6(2): 200-206; Trans., AIME, 291. SPE-18752-PA. doi:10.2118/18752-PA.
Belgrave, J.D.M., Moore, R.G., Ursenbach, M.G., and Bennion, D.W. 1993. A Comprehensive Approach to In-SituCombustion Modeling. SPE Advanced Technology Series 1(1): 98-107. SPE-20250-PA. doi: 10.2118/20250-PA.
Clara, C., Durandeau, M., Quenault, G., Nguyen, T.-H. 1999. Laboratory Studies for Light Oil AirInjection Projects: Potential Application in Handil Field. Paper SPE 54377presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition,Jakarta, 20-22 April. doi: 10.2118/54377-MS.
de Zwart, A.H., van Batenburg, D.W., Blom, C.P.A., Tsolakidis, A., Glandt,C.A., and Boerrigter, P. 2008. The Modelling Challenge of HighPressure Air Injection. Paper SPE 113917 presented at the SPE/DOE ImprovedOil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 19-23 April. doi: 10.2118/113917-MS.
Fraim, M.L., Moffitt, P.D., and Yannimaras, D.V. 1997. Laboratory Testing and SimulationResults for High Pressure Air Injection in a Waterflooded North Sea OilReservoir. Paper SPE 38905 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conferenceand Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 5-8 October. doi:10.2118/38905-MS.
Glandt, C.A., Pieterson, R., Dombrowski, A., and Balzrini, M.A. 1999. Coral Creek Field Study: AComprehensive Assessment of the Potential of High-Pressure Air Injection in aMature Waterflood Project. Paper SPE 52198 presented at the SPEMid-Continent Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA, 28-31 March.doi: 10.2118/52198-MS.
Greaves, M., Ren, S.R., Rathbone, R.R., Fishlock T., and Ireland, R. 2000.Improved Residual Light OilRecovery by Air Injection (LTO process). J Can Pet Technol 39 (1). JCPT Paper No. 00-01-05. doi: 10.2118/00-01-05.
Juan, E.S., Sanchez, A., Del Monte, A., Moore, R.G., Mehta, S.A., andUrsenbach, M.G. 2005. LaboratoryScreening for Air Injection-Based IOR in Two Waterflooded Light OilReservoirs. J Can Pet Technol 44 (1). JCPT Paper No.05-01-02. doi: 10.2118/05-01-02.
Kuhlman, M.I. 2000. Simulationof Light-Oil Air Injection into Viscous-Dominated and Gravity-StableReservoirs. Paper SPE 59331 presented at the SPE/DOE Improved Oil RecoverySymposium, Tulsa, 3-5 April. doi: 10.2118/59331-MS.
Kumar, V.K., Fassihi, M.R., and Yannimaras, D.V. 1995. Case History and Appraisal of theMedicine Pole Hills Unit Air Injection Project. SPE Res Eng 10 (3): 198-202. SPE-27792-PA. doi: 10.2118/27792-PA.
Montes, A.R., Moore, R.G., Mehta, S.A., and Gutierrez, D. 2008. Is High-Pressure Air Injection (HPAI)Simply a Flue-Gas Flood? Paper CIPC 2008-180 presented at the CanadianInternational Petroleum Conference, Calgary, 17-19 June. doi:10.2118/2008-180.
Moore, R.G., Mehta, S.A., and Ursenbach, M.G. 2002. A Guide to High Pressure AirInjection (HPAI) Based Oil Recovery. Paper SPE 75207 presented at theSPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 13-17 April. doi:10.2118/75207-MS.
Niz-Velásquez, E. 2009. A Numerical and Physical Study of RelativePermeability in High-Pressure Air Injection Process. PhD dissertation,University of Calgary, Calgary (March 2009).
Niz-Velásquez, E., Moore, R.G., Mehta, S.A., and Ursenbach, M.G. 2006.Reservoir Simulation Assessment of the Oil Recovery Mechanisms in High-PressureAir Injection (HPAI). Paper CIPC 2006-068 presented at the Petroleum Society'sCIPC/Annual Technical Meeting, Calgary, 13-15 June.
Niz-Velásquez, E., Van Fraassen, K.C., Moore, R.G., and Mehta, S.A. 2009. An Experimental Study on Three-PhaseFlow in High-Pressure Air Injection (HPAI). J Can Pet Technol 48 (9): 47-53. JCPT Paper No. 09-09-47. doi: 10.2118/09-09-47.
Oak, M.J., Baker, L.E., and Thomas, D.C. 1990. Three-Phase Relative Permeability ofBerea Sandstone. J Pet Technol 42 (8): 1054-1061;Trans., AIME, 289. SPE-17370-PA. doi: 10.2118/17370-PA.
Pascual, M., Crosta, D., Lacentre, P., and Coombe, D. 2005. Air Injection Into a MatureWaterflooded Light Oil Reservoir. Laboratory and Simulation Results forBarrancas Field, Argentina. Paper SPE 94092 presented at the SPEEuropec/EAGE Annual Conference, Madrid, Spain, 13-16 June. doi:10.2118/94092-MS.
Shokoya, O.S. 2005. Enhanced Recovery of Conventional Crude Oils with FlueGas. PhD dissertation, University of Calgary, Calgary (April 2005).
Watts, B.C., Hall, T.F., and Petri, D.J. 1997. The Horse Creek Air InjectionProject: An Overview. Paper SPE 38359 presented at the SPE Rocky MountainRegional Meeting, Casper, Wyoming, USA, 18-21 May. doi: 10.2118/38359-MS.