Systematic Surveillance Techniques for a Large Miscible WAG Flood
- Manmath Panda (PRA) | Derek Nottingham (BP) | David Lenig (BP)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- June 2011
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 299 - 309
- 2011. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.6.5 Tracers, 7.1.9 Project Economic Analysis, 5.3.2 Multiphase Flow, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 6.5.2 Water use, produced water discharge and disposal, 1.14 Casing and Cementing, 5.1.2 Faults and Fracture Characterisation, 3 Production and Well Operations, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 2.2.2 Perforating, 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 5.1.5 Geologic Modeling, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 5.4.2 Gas Injection Methods, 5.6.1 Open hole/cased hole log analysis, 4.3.4 Scale, 5.4 Enhanced Recovery, 5.6.4 Drillstem/Well Testing
- Surveillance of WAG floods
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Miscible water-alternating-gas (WAG) flooding has proven to be an attractive enhanced-oil-recovery (EOR) method the world over. Successful WAG floods can yield significant additional oil recovery over waterflooding.
WAG floods are complex in nature since reduction of residual oil in the pore spaces depends on mass transfer. Optimizing miscibile contact between the injected gas and the reservoir oil over a large rock volume is challenging. This challenge is more manageable in a small-scale pilot flood or a coreflood than in a large field implementation. Numerical-simulation efforts can provide guidance to designing an optimal flood. However, the field application will often reveal challenges that are not discovered in the pilot stage or by the full-field simulation model because the geologic properties and heterogeneity of the reservoir rock are not accurately represented.
Integrated surveillance of a WAG flood is the only means to determine whether the flood is working efficiently and the planned additional recovery will be delivered. A well-implemented surveillance plan allows timely intervention to improve the efficiency of an underperforming WAG flood.
This paper presents a systematic approach for applying EOR surveillance tools and methods in large miscible WAG floods in the Ivishak reservoirs at the Prudhoe Bay and Eileen West End (EWE) of the North Slope, Alaska. Highlights of these surveillance methods are (1) designed and implemented by a multidisciplinary team, (2) based on proven theory and corroborated with field data, (3) requires easily obtainable and relatively inexpensive field data and analysis, and (4) applied from fault block down to zone levels. Implementation of these tools has helped to identify the efficiency of flood patterns and areas of poor performance, which then can be modified through infill drilling, well recompletion, or WAG-ratio modification to maximize EOR recovery.
|File Size||1009 KB||Number of Pages||11|
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