Miscible Flood Forecasting Technique at Judy Creek
- O.C. Biberdorf (Esso Resources Canada Ltd.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Engineering
- Publication Date
- September 1986
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 453 - 462
- 1986. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 5.7 Reserves Evaluation, 4.3.4 Scale, 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 5.6.9 Production Forecasting, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 5.4.2 Gas Injection Methods, 5.8.7 Carbonate Reservoir, 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 5.3.4 Reduction of Residual Oil Saturation, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 5.7.2 Recovery Factors, 4.6 Natural Gas, 5.4.9 Miscible Methods, 5.5.8 History Matching, 5.1.5 Geologic Modeling, 5.4.7 Chemical Flooding Methods (e.g., Polymer, Solvent, Nitrogen, Immiscible CO2, Surfactant, Vapex)
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Summary. A simplified forecasting technique was developed to predict the recovery performance of a hydrocarbon miscible flood in the Judy Creek Beaverhill Lake (BHL) A Pool in Alberta. This technique incorporates the physics of the hydrocarbon miscible-displacement process as well as the physics of the hydrocarbon miscible-displacement process as well as the complex geological reservoir description across the entire pool. The advantages of the technique over conventional three-dimensional (3D) reservoir simulation include cost-effectiveness, speed, and flexibility of parametric evaluations. parametric evaluations. A single-layer areal reservoir simulation model described the areal sweep; oil recovery performance as a function of injection and solvent bank size; and solvent, chase gas, and postmiscible water breakthrough times. A cross-sectional reservoir model determined the effect of gravity override. A geological model provided the porosity and permeability distribution for every 0.6-m [2-ft] interval in each injection pattern as well as the continuous PV-i.e., the volume that is available for miscible displacement. These results were combined into a simplified algorithm (the Forecast Model) to predict tertiary recovery. The Forecast Model adds the tertiary recovery forecast to the waterflood forecast developed from decline analysis to generate a total oil forecast under miscible flooding. This miscible flood forecast is physically reasonable and predicts recovery levels consistent with observed performance of large-scale miscible projects. This technique is being extended for use in other reservoirs projects. This technique is being extended for use in other reservoirs that are candidates for miscible flooding.
To evaluate and design a miscible flood project, it is necessary to predict the production and recovery performance of the pool. It is desirable to do this quickly and performance of the pool. It is desirable to do this quickly and cost-effectively to optimize the various critical miscible flood parameters-such as solvent composition and bank size, injection rate, water/gas injection ratio, and pattern staging-as well as to incorporate complex reservoir geology.
The tool most often used to predict miscible flood performance is the 3D compositional reservoir simulator. performance is the 3D compositional reservoir simulator. This tool is costly to run, however, and is plagued with numerical dispersion that causes the results to be suspect. Consequently, only small portions of a reservoir are usually evaluated, and as a result, the pool-wide geology is not rigorously included.
This paper describes a forecasting technique that incorporates the key parameters of miscible displacement and applies it to the complex and varying reservoir geology throughout the vertical and areal extent of the entire reservoir.
We have employed this forecasting technique, the Forecast Model, to evaluate the miscible flood performance for both the Judy Creek BHL A and B Pools. 1-1 A Pool results will be used to describe the model in this paper.
Pool History Pool History Judy Creek BHL A Pool, discovered in 1959, is located 200 km [124 miles] northwest of Edmonton, Alta., Canada (Fig. 1). Solution-gas drive is the primary depletion mechanism in this reservoir, and as a result, a peripheral waterflood was initiated in 1962 to maintain pressure. In 1974, a pattern waterflood was installed in the interior part of the pool. Approval to implement a horizontal part of the pool. Approval to implement a horizontal hydrocarbon miscible flood was received in Oct. 1983 from the Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board, and this project was initiated in mid-1985.
To date, approximately 33% of the 130 106 std m3 [820 x 10 bbl] original oil in place (OOIP) has been produced. This represents 79% of the estimated ultimate produced. This represents 79% of the estimated ultimate waterflood recovery of 41.5 % OOIP.
The Judy Creek BHL A Pool is an atoll-like reefal limestone complex, one of a series of Upper Devonian age reefs (Fig. 1). The reef has been subdivided into five stratigraphic zones, S1 through S5 (Fig. 2). Zones S1 and S2 make up the platform, while Zones S3, S4, and S5 comprise the reefal reservoir. Zone S4 is further subdivided into upper, middle, and lower units (US4, MS4, LS4). Upper and lower units are also defined for Zone S5 (US5, LS5). These zones and their subdivisions are bounded by time stratigraphic markers that result from interruptions of reef growth. The time markers are correlated over large areas of the reef and are often characterized by impermeable limestones. Therefore, these zones are considered to be isolated from each other over large areas of the reservoir.
Good logs are available on all wells in the pool, and about 40% of the wells were cored. Core and log porosity and permeability data for all wells together with porosity and permeability data for all wells together with geological markers were incorporated into a 3D computerized geological model. With this model, porosity and permeability cross sections can be generated in any permeability cross sections can be generated in any direction within the pool.
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