Numerical Studies on the Geomechanical Stability of Hydrate-Bearing Sediments
- Jonny Rutqvist (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) | George J. Moridis (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- June 2009
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 267 - 282
- 2009. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.6 Natural Gas, 4.3.1 Hydrates, 5.4.2 Gas Injection Methods, 1.2.2 Geomechanics, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 5.1.1 Exploration, Development, Structural Geology, 5.6.1 Open hole/cased hole log analysis, 5.3.2 Multiphase Flow, 4.5 Offshore Facilities and Subsea Systems, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 5.9.1 Gas Hydrates, 1.14 Casing and Cementing, 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 4.3.4 Scale, 5.9.2 Geothermal Resources
- 6 in the last 30 days
- 747 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
The thermal and mechanical loading of oceanic hydrate-bearing sediments (HBS) can result in hydrate dissociation and a significant pressure increase with potentially adverse consequences on the integrity and stability of the wellbore assembly, the HBS, and the bounding formations. The perception of HBS instability, coupled with insufficient knowledge of their geomechanical behavior and the absence of predictive capabilities, has resulted in a strategy of avoidance of HBS when locating offshore production platforms and can impede the development of hydrate depo-sits as gas resources.
In this study, we investigate coupled (interacting) hydraulic, thermodynamic, and geomechanical behavior of oceanic HBS in three cases. The first involves hydrate heating as warm fluids from deeper conventional reservoirs ascend to the ocean floor through uninsulated pipes intersecting the HBS. The second case describes system response during gas production from a hydrate deposit, and the third involves mechanical loading caused by the weight of structures placed on the ocean floor overlying the HBS.
For the analysis of the geomechanical stability of HBS, we developed and used a numerical simulator that integrates a commercial geomechanical simulator and a simulator describing the coupled processes of fluid flow, heat transport and thermodynamic behavior in the HBS. Our simulation results indicate that the stability of HBS in the vicinity of warm pipes may be affected significantly. Gas production from oceanic deposits may also affect the geomechanical stability of HBS under the conditions that are deemed desirable for production. Conversely, the increased pressure caused by the weight of structures on the ocean floor increases the stability of underlying hydrates.
|File Size||3 MB||Number of Pages||16|
Aoki, Y., Shimizu, S., Yamane, T., Tanaka, T., Nakayama, K., Hayashi, T.,and Okuda, Y. 2000. Methane Hydrate Accumulation Along the Western NankaiTrough. In Gas Hydrates: Challenges for the Future, ed. G.D. Holder andP.R. Bishnoi, Vol. 912, 136. New York City: Annals, New York Academy ofSciences.
Collett, T.S. and Lee, M.W. 2006. Well Log Analysis: Tiger Shark AC 818 No.1. Internal memo, US Geological Survey, Washington, DC.
Durham, W.B., Kirby, S.H., Stern, L.A., and Zhang, W. 2003. The strength and rheology ofmethane clathrate hydrate. J. Geophys. Research 108(B4): 2182. doi:10.1029/2002JB001872.
Itasca Consulting Group. 2006. Flac 3D (Fast Lagrangian analysis ofcontinua in 3 dimensions), Version 3.1. Minneapolis, Minnesota: ICG.
Jaeger, J.C., Cook, N.G.W., and Zimmerman, R.W. 2007. Fundamentals ofRock Mechanics, fourth edition. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing.
Klauda, J.B. and Sandler, S.I. 2005. Global Distribution of MethaneHydrate in Ocean Sediment. Energy & Fuels 19 (2):469-478. doi:10.1021/ef049798o.
Leverett, M.C. 1941. CapillaryBehavior in Porous Solids. Trans., AIME, 142: 152-169.
Makogon, Y.F. 1997. Hydrates of Hydrocarbons. Tulsa: PennWellPublishing Co.
Masui, A., Haneda, H., Ogata, Y., and Aoki, K. 2005. The effect ofsaturation degree of methane hydrate on the shear strength of synthetic methanehydrate sediments. Proc., 5th International Conference on Gas Hydrates,Trondheim, Norway, Paper 2037, 657-663.
McIver, R.D. 1977. Hydrates of natural gas-an important agent in geologicprocesses. In Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 9, 1089-1090. Boulder,Colorado: Geological Society of America.
Moridis, G.J. 2003. NumericalStudies of Gas Production From Methane Hydrates. SPE J.8 (4): 359-370. SPE-87330-PA. doi: 10.2118/87330-PA.
Moridis, G.J. 2004. NumericalStudies of Gas Production from Class 2 and Class 3 Hydrate Accumulations at theMallik Site, Mackenzie Delta, Canada. SPE Res Eval & Eng7 (3): 175-183. SPE-88039-PA. doi: 10.2118/88039-PA.
Moridis, G.J. and Kowalsky, M.B. 2006. Response of Oceanic Hydrate-BearingSediments to Thermal Stresses. Paper OTC 18193 presented at the OffshoreTechnology Conference, Houston, 1-4 May. doi: 10.4043/18193-MS.
Moridis, G.J. and Reagan, M.T. 2007a. Gas Production From Oceanic Class 2Hydrate Accumulations. Paper OTC 18866 presented at the Offshore TechnologyConference, Houston, 30 April-3 May. doi: 10.4043/18866-MS.
Moridis, G.J. and Reagan, M.T. 2007b. Strategies for Gas Production FromOceanic Class 3 Hydrate Accumulations. Paper OTC 18865 presented at theOffshore Technology Conference, Houston, 30 April-3 May. doi:10.4043/18865-MS.
Moridis, G.J., Kowalsky, M.B., Pruess, K. 2007. Depressurization-Induced GasProduction From Class 1 Hydrate Deposits. SPE Res Eval & Eng10 (5): 458-481. SPE-97266-PA. doi: 10.2118/97266-PA.
Moridis, G.J., Kowalsky, M., and Pruess, K. 2008. TOUGH+HYDRATE v1.0 User'sManual: A Code for the Simulation of System Behavior in Hydrate-BearingGeologic Media. Report LBNL-00149E, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,Berkeley, California.
Paull, C.K., Buelow, W.J., Ussler, W. III, and Borowski, W.S. 1996. Increased continental-margin slumping frequency during sea-level low standsabove gas hydrate-bearing sediments. Geology 24 (2):143-146. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1996)024<0143:ICMSFD>2.3.CO;2.
Rutqvist, J. and Tsang, C.F. 2002. A study of caprock hydromechanicalchanges associated with CO2 injection into a brine aquifer. EnvironmentalGeology 42: 296-305.
Rutqvist, J., and Tsang, C.F. 2003. Analysis ofthermal-hydrologic-mechanical behavior near an emplacement drift at YuccaMountain. J. Contaminant Hydrology 62-63: 637-652.
Rutqvist, J., Wu, Y.-S., Tsang, C.-F., and Bodvarsson, G. 2002. A ModelingApproach for Analysis of Coupled Multiphase Fluid Flow, Heat Transfer, andDeformation in Fractured Porous Rock. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci.39: 429-442.
Schmuck, E.A. and Paull, C.K. 1993. Evidence for gas accumulationassociated with diapirism and gas hydrates at the head of the Cape FearSlide. Geo-Marine Letters 13 (3): 145-152.doi:10.1007/BF01593187.
Settari, A. and Mourits, F.M. 1998. A Coupled Reservoir and GeomechanicalSimulation System. SPE J. 3 (3): 219-226. SPE-50939-PA.doi: 10.2118/50939-PA.
Sloan, E.D. Jr. 1998. Clathrate Hydrates of Natural Gases, secondedition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.
Smith, S., Boswell, R., Collett, T., Lee, M., and Jones, E. 2006. AlaminosCanyon Block 818: A Documented Example of Gas Hydrate Saturated Sand in theGulf of Mexico. Fire In The Ice (The National Energy Technology LaboratoryMethane Hydrate Newsletter) Fall 2006: 12-13.
van Genuchten, M.T. 1980. A Closed-Form Equation for Predicting theHydraulic Conductivity of Unsaturated Soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J.44: 892.
Wright, J.F., Dallimore, S.R., and Nixon, F.M. 1999. Influences of GrainSize and Salinity on Pressure-Temperature Thresholds for Methane HydrateStability in JAPEX/JNOC/GSC Mallik 2L-38 Gas Hydrate Research-Well Sediments;in Scientific Results from JAPEX/JNOC/GSC Mallik 2L-38 Gas hydrateresearch-well, Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada, ed. S.R.Dallimore, T. Uchida, and T.S. Collett. Geological Survey of CanadaBulletin 544: 229.
Zoback, M.D. 2007. Reservoir Geomechanics. Cambridge, UK: CambridgeUniversity Press.