The Sonic Log and The Delaware Sand
- Marcus L. Millican (Schlumberger Well Surveying Corp.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- January 1960
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 71 - 75
- 1960. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 5.3.4 Integration of geomechanics in models, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 5.5.2 Core Analysis, 5.6.1 Open hole/cased hole log analysis, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 4.3.4 Scale, 5.6.2 Core Analysis, 1.11 Drilling Fluids and Materials, 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 2.2.2 Perforating
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The objective of this study has been to develop a method of log interpretation in the Delaware sand whereby the effects of the shale contained within the sand can be recognized and accounted for in a quantitative solution for porosity and water saturation.
Both theoretical and empirical considerations are discussed. A simplified interpretation chart is presented which provides a means of amending the conventional porosity resolution of the Sonic log to compensate for the presence of shale. The amount of shale within the sand and its degree of lamination may be inferred from a calibrated gamma ray log. The resulting porosity value may then be used in conjunction with a knowledge of the formation resistivity to determine water saturation.
Of added interest, particularly in the Delaware sand, is an approximation of permeability which may be derived empirically from the simplified chart.
The discussion is illustrated by field examples.
The performance of the Sonic log in defining the porosity fraction in clean, consolidated formations is well known, particularly in sandstones that are well compacted and free of shale. An approach to Sonic log porosity determination in shaly sands has been recently developed. This method involves correcting the Sonic log readings by means of an a factor, where a is the ratio of the pseudo-static SP to the static SP, and is a function of the amount of shale present.
This method is dependent upon a contrast between the salinities of the drilling fluid and the connate water in the formation, inasmuch as this contrast produces the SP effect. In wells drilled with salt mud, the contrast, and with it the means of obtaining the a correction, disappear.
In the Delaware basin, the large majority of rotary wells drilled to the uppermost sands of the Bell Canyon group employ salt mud as the drilling fluid. These sands have been the objective of most of the drilling exploration in the basin to date. A comparison of porosity values in these sands, as determined by core analysis, to Sonic log readings has indicated that a correction for the shaliness of the sand is needed. In the absence of an SP curve to determine the correction factor, the porosity resolution of the Sonic log in these sands has been questionable.
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