Numerical Modeling of Multistranded-Hydraulic-Fracture Propagation: Accounting for the Interaction Between Induced and Natural Fractures
- Arash Dahi-Taleghani (Louisiana State University) | Jon E. Olson (University of Texas at Austin)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- September 2011
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 575 - 581
- 2011. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.14 Casing and Cementing, 2.5.1 Fracture design and containment, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 1.14.3 Cement Formulation (Chemistry, Properties), 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant)
- Production and Operations
- 20 in the last 30 days
- 2,501 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Recent examples of hydraulic-fracture diagnostic data suggest that complex, multistranded hydraulic-fracture geometry is a common occurrence. This reality is in stark contrast to the industry-standard design models based on the assumption of symmetric, planar, biwing geometry. The interaction between pre-existing natural fractures and the advancing hydraulic fracture is a key condition leading to complex fracture patterns. Performing hydraulic-fracture-design calculations under these less-than-ideal conditions requires modeling fracture intersections and tracking fluid fronts in the network of reactivated fissures. Whether a hydraulic fracture crosses or is arrested by a pre-existing natural fracture is controlled by shear strength and potential slippage at the fracture intersections, as well as potential debonding of sealed cracks in the near-tip region of a propagating hydraulic fracture. We present a complex hydraulic-fracture pattern propagation model based on the extended finite-element method (XFEM) as a design tool that can be used to optimize treatment parameters under complex propagation conditions. Results demonstrate that fracture-pattern complexity is strongly controlled by the magnitude of anisotropy of in-situ stresses, rock toughness, and natural-fracture cement strength, as well as the orientation of the natural fractures relative to the hydraulic fracture. Analysis shows that the growing hydraulic fracture may exert enough tensile and shear stresses on cemented natural fractures that the latter may be debonded, opened, and/or sheared in advance of hydraulic-fracture-tip arrival, while under other conditions, natural fractures will be unaffected by the hydraulic fracture. Detailed aperture distributions at the intersection between fracture segments show the potential for difficulty in proppant transport under complex fracture-propagation conditions.
|File Size||654 KB||Number of Pages||7|
Atkinson, B.K. 1989. Fracture Mechanics of Rock. New York: GeologySeries, Academic Press.
Batchelor, G.K. 1967. An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics. Cambridge,UK: Cambridge University Press.
Cipolla, C.L., Warpinski, N.R., Mayerhofer, M.J., Lolon, E.P., and Vincent,M.C. 2008. The Relationship between Fracture Complexity, Reservoir Properties,and Fracture Treatment Design. Paper SPE 115769 presented at the SPE AnnualTechnical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 21-24 September. doi: 10.2118/115769-MS.
Dahi-Taleghani, A. 2009. Analysis of hydraulic fracture propagation infractured reservoirs: an improved model for the interaction between induced andnatural fractures. PhD dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin,Texas (May 2009).
Delaney, P.T. and Pollard, D.D. 1981. Deformation of host rocks and flow ofmagma during growth of minette dikes and breccia-bearing intrusions near ShipRock, NM. Professional Paper 1202, US Geological Survey, Washington, DC,1-13.
Detournay, E. 2004. Propagation Regimes of Fluid-Driven Fractures inImpermeable Rocks. Int. J. Geomech. 4 (1): 35-45. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)1532-3641(2004)4:1(35).
Fisher, M.K., Wright, C.A., Davidson, B.M., Goodwin, A.K., Fielder, E.O.,Buckler, W.S., and Steinsberger, N.P. 2005. Integrating Fracture-MappingTechnologies To Improve Stimulations in the Barnett Shale. SPE Prod andFac 20 (2): 85-93. SPE-77441-PA. doi: 10.2118/77441-PA.
Freund, L.B. 1990. Dynamic Fracture Mechanics. Cambridge, UK:Cambridge Monographs on Mechanics, Cambridge University Press.
Freund, L.B. and Suresh, S. 2003. Thin Film Materials: Stress, DefectFormation, and Surface Evolution. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge UniversityPress.
Gale, J.F.W. and Holder, J. 2008. Natural Fractures in the Barnett Shale:constraints on spatial organization and tensile strength with implications forhydraulic fracture treatment in shale-gas reservoirs. Paper ARMA 08-096presented at The 42nd U.S. Rock Mechanics Symposium (USRMS), San Francisco, 29June-2 July.
Gale, J.F.W., Reed, R.M., and Holder, J. 2007. Natural fractures in theBarnett Shale and their importance for hydraulic fracture treatments. AAPGBulletin 91 (4): 603-622. doi:10.1306/11010606061.
Geertsma, J. 1990. Two-Dimensional Fracture-Propagation Models. In RecentAdvances in Hydraulic Fracturing, ed. J.L. Gidley, S.A. Holditch, D.E.Nierode, and R.W. Veatch Jr., Vol. 12, Chap. 4. Richardson, Texas: MonographSeries, SPE.
Geertsma, J. and de Klerk, F. 1969. A Rapid Method of Predicting Width andExtent of Hydraulic Induced Fractures. J Pet Technol 21(12): 1571-1581; Trans., AIME, 246. SPE-2458-PA. doi: 10.2118/2458-PA.
Hallam, S.D. and Last, N.C. 1991. Geometry of Hydraulic Fractures FromModestly Deviated Wellbores. J Pet Technol 43 (6): 742-748.SPE-20656-PA. doi:10.2118/20656-PA.
He, M.-Y. and Hutchinson, J.W. 1989. Crack Deflection at an InterfaceBetween Dissimilar Materials. Int. J. Solids Structures 25(9): 1053-1067.
Laubach, S.E. 2003. Practical approaches to identifying sealed and openfractures. AAPG Bulletin 87 (4): 561-579.
Laubach, S.E., Olson, J.E., and Gale J. 2004. Are open fractures necessarilyaligned with maximum horizontal stress? Earth and Planetary ScienceLetters 222 (1): 191-195. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2004.02.019.
Lawn, B.R. 1993. Fracture of Brittle Solids, second edition.Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Solid State Science Series, Cambridge UniversityPress.
Martha, L.F., Wawrzynek, P.A., and Ingraffea, A.R. 1993. Arbitrary crackrepresentation using solid modeling. Engineering with Computers 9: 63-82.
Moës, N., Dolbow, J., and Belytschko, T. 1999. A finite element method forcrack growth without remeshing. International Journal for Numerical Methodsin Engineering 46 (1): 131-150. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0207(19990910)46:1<131::AID-NME726>3.3.CO;2-A.
Nilson, R.H. 1988. Similarity solutions for wedge-shaped hydraulic fracturedriven into a permeable medium by a constant inlet pressure. InternationalJournal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics 12 (5): 477-495. doi:10.1002/nag.1610120503.
Nolte, K.G. 1987. Discussion of Influence of Geologic Discontinuities onHydraulic Fracture Propagation. J Pet Technol 39 (8): 998.SPE-17011-DS. doi:10.2118/13224-PA.
Nuismer, R. 1975. An energy release rate criterion for mixed mode fracture.International Journal of Fracture 11 (2): 245-250. doi:10.1007/BF00038891.
Olson, J.E. 2004. Predicting fracture swarms—the influence of subcriticalcrack growth and the crack-tip process zone on joint spacing in rock. In TheInitiation, Propagation, and Arrest of Joints and Other Fractures, ed. J.W.Cosgrove and T. Engelder, No. 231, 73-87. Bath, UK: Special Publication,Geological Society Publishing House.
Olson, J.E. and Dahi-Taleghani, A. 2009. Modeling Simultaneous Growth ofMultiple Hydraulic Fractures and Their Interaction With Natural Fractures.Paper SPE 119739 presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing TechnologyConference, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 19-21 January. doi: 10.2118/119739-MS.
Pollard, D.D., Muller, O.H., and Dockstader, D.R. 1975. The Form and Growthof Fingered Sheet Intrusions. GSA Bulletin 86 (3): 351-363.doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1975)86<351:TFAGOF>2.0.CO;2.
Spence, D. and D. Turcotte. 1985. Magma-Driven Propagation of Cracks.Journal of Geophysical Research 90 (B1): 575-580. doi:10.1029/JB090iB01p00575.
Valkó, P. and Economides, M.J. 1995. Hydraulic Fracture Mechanics.Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons.
Warpinski, N.R., Lorenz, J.C., Branagan, P.T., Myal, F.R., and Gall, B.L.1993. Examination of a Cored Hydraulic Fracture in a Deep Gas Well. SPE Prod& Fac 8 (3): 150-158. SPE-22876-PA. doi: 10.2118/22876-PA.
Yew, C.H. and Li, Y. 1988. Fracturing of a Deviated Well. SPE ProdEng 3 (4): 429-437. SPE-16930-PA. doi: 10.2118/16930-PA.