- Boolean operators
- This OR that
This AND that
This NOT that
- Must include "This" and "That"
- This That
- Must not include "That"
- This -That
- "This" is optional
- This +That
- Exact phrase "This That"
- "This That"
- (this AND that) OR (that AND other)
- Specifying fields
- publisher:"Publisher Name"
author:(Smith OR Jones)
Design of a High-Pressure Research Flow Loop for the Experimental Investigation of Liquid Loading in Gas Wells
- Juan J. Fernandez (Texas A&M University) | Gioia Falcone (Texas A&M University) | Catalin Teodoriu (Texas A&M Univiersity)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Projects, Facilities & Construction
- Publication Date
- June 2010
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 76 - 88
- 2010. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.2.1 Piping Design and Simulation, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 5.6.4 Drillstem/Well Testing, 5.4 Enhanced Recovery, 5.7.5 Economic Evaluations, 4.2 Pipelines, Flowlines and Risers, 4.1.6 Compressors, Engines and Turbines, 4.3.4 Scale, 4.6 Natural Gas, 5.3.2 Multiphase Flow, 5.6.8 Well Performance Monitoring, Inflow Performance, 2.2.2 Perforating, 1.14 Casing and Cementing, 2 Well Completion, 1.2.3 Rock properties, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 6.5.2 Water use, produced water discharge and disposal, 4.2.3 Materials and Corrosion, 3.1.8 Gas Well Deliquification, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 3.1.6 Gas Lift
- 0 in the last 30 days
- 613 since 2007
- Show more detail
Existing models to predict and analyze liquid loading in gas wells are based on steady-state flow. Even when transient-multiphase-wellbore models are employed, steady-state or pseudosteady-state inflow-performance relationships are used to characterize the reservoir. A more-reliable approach consists of modeling the dynamics in the near-wellbore region with its transient boundary conditions for the wellbore. The development of new models to mimic the dynamic interaction between reservoir and wellbore requires a purpose-built flow loop. We have developed a design to construct such a facility.
This new facility will be the first to integrate pipe representing the wellbore with a porous medium that will fully mimic the formation surrounding the wellbore. This design will account not only for flow into the wellbore, but also for any reverse flow from the pipe into the medium.
We used integrated wellbore/reservoir system analysis to screen the parameters required to recreate liquid loading under laboratory conditions. Our results suggested using a compressed-air system with a discharge pressure between 470 and 650 psi with gas rates of 400 to 650 scf/min along with water injected at a rate of 100 gal/min. Once the range in operating conditions was defined, the equipment and mechanical components for the facility were selected and designed.
Our results showed that three reciprocating compressors working in parallel provide the smallest, most economic, and most flexible configuration for the TowerLab facility at Texas A&M University (TAMU). The design of the pressure vessel hosting the porous medium will require a cylindrical body with top- and bottom-welded flathead covers with multiple openings to minimize weight. The required superficial velocities for air and water indicate the system will need independent injection into the porous medium through two manifolds. Optimally, the system will use digital pressure gauges, coriolis or vortex technology to measure air flow, and turbine meters for water flow.
A joint-industry project (JIP) on liquid loading in gas wells was initiated in January 2009, which includes the implementation of the proposed design for the TowerLab facility to generate experimental data that will significantly improve our ability to mimic the physics of multiphase flow, and so develop and validate flow models for the characterization of liquid loading in gas wells. It is anticipated that a preliminary version of the new loop, including an inlet multiphase-flow pump, has been assembled and will be operational early in Fall 2010, with plans for the full design to be implemented in 2010-11.
Al-Shuraiqi, H., Grattoni, C.A., and Muggeridge, A.H. 2003 Laboratory andNumerical Studies of First Contact Miscible WAG Displacement: The Effects ofWAG Ratio and Flowrate. Paper presented at the 12th European Symposium onImproved Oil Recovery, Kazan, Russia, 8-10 September.
B31.3--2002 Process Piping. 2002. New York: ASME.
BPVC-VIII--2007 BPVC Section VIII-Rules for Construction of PressureVessels Division 1, 15-364. 2007. New York: ASME.
Coleman, S.B., Clay, H.B., McCurdy, D.G., and Norris, L.H. III. 1991. A New Look at Predicting Gas-WellLoad-Up. J Pet Technol 43 (3): 329-333; Trans.,AIME, 291. SPE-20280-PA. doi: 10.2118/20280-PA.
Corteville, J., Grouvel, M., Roux, A., and Lagiere, M. 1983. Expérimentation des écoulementsdiphasiques en conduites pétrolières : boucles d'essais de Boussens. Oil& Gas Science and Technology--Rev. IFP 38 (2): 143-151.doi: 10.2516/ogst:1983009.
Costantini, A. 2005. Dynamic Interaction Between the Reservoir and the WellDuring Well Testing. Dipl. Ing. thesis, Sapienza University of Rome andImperial College, Rome.
Dousi, N., Veeken, C.A.M., and Currie, P.K. 2006. Numerical and Analytical Modeling ofthe Gas-Well Liquid-Loading Process. SPE Prod & Oper 21 (4): 475-482. SPE-95282-PA. doi: 10.2118/95282-PA.
Falcone, G., Hewitt, G.F., Lao, L., and Richardson, S.M. 2003. ANUMET: A Novel Wet GasFlowmeter. Paper SPE 84504 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conferenceand Exhibition, Denver, 5-8 October. doi: 10.2118/84504-MS.
Falcone, G., Teodoriu, C., Reinicke, K.M., and Bello, O.O. 2007. Multiphase Flow Modeling Based onExperimental Testing: A Comprehensive Overview of Research Facilities Worldwideand the Need for Future Developments. Paper SPE 110116 presented at the SPEAnnual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Anaheim, California, USA, 11-14November. doi: 10.2118/110116-MS.
Guo, B, Ghalambor, A., and Xu, C. 2006. A Systematic Approach to PredictingLiquid Loading in Gas Wells. SPE Prod & Oper 21(1): 81-88. SPE-94081-PA. doi: 10.2118/94081-PA.
Kegel, T. and Kinney, J. 1998. Wet Gas Metering Facility at CEESI. InternalReport, Colorado Engineering Experiment Station (CEESI), Nunn, Colorado.
Langsholt, M. 2007. Well flow loop. Institute for Energy Technology (IFE),http://www.ife.no/laboratories/well_flow_loop/index_html-en/view.Accessed November 2007.
Lea, J.F., Nickens, H.V., and Wells, M.R. 2003. Gas WellDeliquification, first edition. Burlington, Massachusetts: GulfProfessional Publishing, Elsevier.
Neves, T.R. and Brimhall, R.M. 1989. Elimination of Liquid Loading inLow-Productivity Gas Wells. Paper SPE 18833 presented at the SPE ProductionOperations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA, 13-14 March. doi:10.2118/18833-MS.
Nosseir, M.A., Darwich, T.A., Sayyouh, M.H., and El Sallaly, M. 1997. A New Approach for AccuratePrediction of Loading in Gas Wells Under Different Flowing Conditions.Paper SPE 37408 presented at the SPE Production Operations Symposium, OklahomaCity, Oklahoma, USA, 9-11 March. doi: 10.2118/37408-MS.
Robøle, B., Kvandal, H., and Schüller, R. 2006. The Norsk HydroMultiphase Flow Loop. A high pressure flow loop for real three-phasehydrocarbon systems. Flow Measurement and Instrumentation 17 (3): 163-170. doi:10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2006.01.003.
Saaty, T.L. 1977. Ascaling method for priorities in hierarchical structures. Journal ofMathematical Psychology 15 (3): 234-281.doi:10.1016/0022-2496(77)90033-5.
SINTEF. 2007. Laboratories: SINTEF Multiphase Flow Laboratory, http://www.sintef.no/Home/Petroleum-and-Energy/SINTEF-Petroleum-Research/Wellstream-Technology/Laboratories/.Accessed November 2007.
Snow, D. 2002. Plant Engineer's Reference Book, second edition, 26.Oxford, UK: Butterworth-Heinemann/Reed Elsevier.
Solomon, F. and Fernandez, J. 2007. Design and Construction of a DedicatedFacility for the Experimental Study of Liquid Loading in Gas Wells. InterimReport, Crisman Institute for Petroleum Research, College Station, Texas(November 2007).
Stephenson, G.B., Rouen, R.P., and Rosenzweig, M.H. 2000. Gas-Well Dewatering: A CoordinatedApproach. Paper SPE 58984 presented at the SPE International PetroleumConference and Exhibition in Mexico, Villahermosa, Mexico, 1-3 February. doi:10.2118/58984-MS.
Toma, P.R., Vargas, E. and Kuru, E. 2007. Prediction of Slug-to-Annular FlowPattern Transition (STA) for Reducing the Risk of Gas-Lift Instabilities andEffective Gas/Liquid Transport From Low-Pressure Reservoirs. SPE Prod& Oper 22 (3): 339-346. SPE-100615-PA. doi:10.2118/100615-PA.
Turner, R.G., Hubbard, M.G., and Dukler, A.E. 1969. Analysis and Prediction of MinimumFlowrate for the Continuous Removal of Liquids from Gas Wells. J PetTechnol 21 (11): 1475-1482; Trans., AIME, 246.SPE-2198-PA. doi: 10.2118/2198-PA.
TUV NEL. 2010. Flow Programme: Wet Gas Test Facility, http://www.flowprogramme.co.uk/facilities/wetgas.asp(accessed November 2007).
van Gool, F. and Currie, P.K. 2008. An Improved Model for theLiquid-Loading Process in Gas Wells. SPE Prod & Oper 23 (4): 458-463. SPE-106699-PA. doi: 10.2118/106699-PA.
Viana, F. 2007. SwRI® Mulitiphase Flow Loop, http://www.swri.org/4org/d18/mechflu/fluiddyn/pdfs/flowloop.pdf.Accessed November 2007.
Vilagines, R. and Hall, A.R.W. 2003. A Comparative Behavior of MultiphaseFlowmeter Test Facilities. Oil & Gas Science and Technology--Rev.IFP 58 (6): 647-658.
Yamamoto, H. and Christiansen R.L. 1999. Enhancing Liquid Lift from LowPressure Gas Reservoirs. Paper SPE 55625 presented at the SPE RockyMountain Regional Meeting, Gillette, Wyoming, USA, 15-18 May. doi:10.2118/55625-MS.
Not finding what you're looking for? Some of the OnePetro partner societies have developed subject- specific wikis that may help.
The SEG Wiki
The SEG Wiki is a useful collection of information for working geophysicists, educators, and students in the field of geophysics. The initial content has been derived from : Robert E. Sheriff's Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied Geophysics, fourth edition.