A Microvisual Study of the Displacement of Viscous Oil by Polymer Solutions
- Markus Buchgraber (University of Leoben) | Torsten Clemens (OMV) | Louis M. Castanier (Stanford University) | Anthony Kovscek (Stanford University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- June 2011
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 269 - 280
- 2011. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 5.4.7 Chemical Flooding Methods (e.g., Polymer, Solvent, Nitrogen, Immiscible CO2, Surfactant, Vapex), 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 4.3.4 Scale, 5.3.2 Multiphase Flow, 1.2.3 Rock properties, 5.3.4 Reduction of Residual Oil Saturation, 4.3.1 Hydrates, 5.4.6 Thermal Methods, 6.5.2 Water use, produced water discharge and disposal, 5.7.2 Recovery Factors
- Microfluidics, Pore level, Associative polymer, Enhanced oil recovery
- 17 in the last 30 days
- 1,617 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Of the various enhanced-oil-recovery (EOR) polymer formulations, newly developed associative polymers show special promise. We investigate pore and pore-network scales because polymer solutions ultimately flow through the pore space of rock to displace oil. We conduct and monitor optically water/oil and polymer-solution/oil displacements in a 2D etched-silicon micromodel. The micromodel has the geometrical and topological characteristics of sandstone. Conventional hydrolyzed-polyacrylamide solutions and newly developed associative-polymer solutions with concentrations ranging from 500 to 2,500 ppm were tested. The crude oil had a viscosity of 450 cp at test conditions. Our results provide new insight regarding the ability of polymer to stabilize multiphase flow. At zero and low polymer concentrations, relatively long and wide fingers of injectant developed, leading to early water breakthrough and low recoveries. At increased polymer concentration, a much greater number of relatively fine fingers formed. The width-to-length ratio of these fingers was quite small, and the absolute length of fingers decreased. At a larger scale of observation, the displacement front appears to be stabilized; hence, recovery efficiency improved remarkably. Above a concentration of 1,500 ppm, plugging of the micromodel by polymer and lower oil recovery was observed for both polymer types. For tertiary polymer injection that begins at breakthrough of water, the severe fingers resulting from water injection are modified significantly. Fingers become wider and grow in the direction normal to flow as polymer solution replaces water. Apparently, improved sweep efficiency of viscous oils is possible (at this scale of investigation) even after waterflooding. The associative- and conventional-polymer solutions improved oil recovery by approximately the same amount. The associative polymers, however, showed more-stable displacement fronts in comparison to conventional-polymer solutions.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||12|
Aktas, F., Clemens, T., Castanier, L.M., and Kovscek, A.R. 2008. Viscous OilDisplacement With Aqueous Associative Polymers. Paper SPE 113264 presented atthe SPE/DOE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, 19-23 April. doi: 10.2118/113264-MS.
Benham, A.L. and Olson R.W. 1963. A Model Study of Viscous Fingering. SPEJ. 3 (2): 138-144. SPE-513-PA. doi: 10.2118/513-PA.
Buckley, J.S. 1990. Multiphase displacements in micromodels. InInterfacial Phenomena in Oil Recovery, ed. N.R. Morrow, 157-189. NewYork City: Marcel Dekker.
Craig, F.F. Jr. 1980. The Reservoir Engineering Aspects ofWaterflooding, Vol. 3. Richardson, Texas, USA: Monograph Series, SPE.
Davis, J.A. Jr. and Jones, S.C. 1968. Displacement Mechanisms of ResidualSolutions. J Pet Technol 20 (12): 1415-1428; Trans.,AIME, 243. SPE-1847-2-PA. doi: 10.2118/1845-2-PA.
Dawson, R. and Lantz, R.B. 1972. Inaccessible Pore Volume in PolymerFlooding. SPE J. 12 (5): 448-452; Trans., AIME,253. SPE-3522-PA. doi:10.2118/3522-PA.
Delshad, M., Kim, D.H., Magbagbeolz, O.A., Huh, C., Pope, G.A., andTarahhom, F. 2008. Mechanistic Interpretation and Utilization of ViscoelasticBehavior of Polymer Solutions for Improved Polymer-Flood Efficiency. Paper SPE113620 presented at the SPE/DOE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa,19-23 April. doi:10.2118/113620-MS.
Dong, H.Z., Fang, S.F., Wang, D.M., Wang, J.Y., and Liu, Z. 2008. Review ofPractical Experience & Management by Polymer Flooding at Daqing. Paper SPE114342 presented at the SPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 19-23April. doi:10.2118/114342-MS.
Glass, J.E. ed. 2000. Associative Polymers in Aqueous Media, No. 765.Oxford, UK: ACS Symposium Series, Oxford University Press.
Hornbrook, J.W., Castanier, L.M., and Pettit, P.A. 1991. Observations ofFoam/Oil Interactions in a New High Resolution Micromodel. Paper SPE 22631presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 6-9October. doi:10.2118/22631-MS.
Huang, Z., Lu H., and He Y. 2006. Amphoteric hydrophobic associativepolymer: I synthesis, solution properties and effect on solution properties ofsurfactant. Colloid & Polymer Science 285 (3): 365-370.doi:10.1007/s00396-006-1570-z.
Jiang, H., Wu, W., Wang, D., Zeng, Y., Zhao, S., and Nie, J. 2008. TheEffect of Elasticity on Displacement Efficiency in the Lab and Results of HighConcentration Polymer Flooding in the Field. Paper SPE 115315 presented at SPEAnnual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 21-24 September. doi: 10.2118/115315-MS.
Kovscek, A.R., Tang, G.-Q., and Radke, C.J. 2007. Verification of Roofsnap-off as a foam-generation mechanism in porous media at steady state.Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 302 (1-3): 251-260. doi:10.1016/j.colsurfa.2007.02.035.
Kovscek, A.R., Wong, H., and Radke, C.J. 1993. A pore-level scenario for thedevelopment of mixed wettability in oil reservoirs. AIChE J. 39 (6): 1072-1085. doi:10.1002/aic.690390616.
Lake, L.W. 1989. Enhanced Oil Recovery. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey,USA: Prentice Hall.
Littman, W. 1988. Polymer Flooding, No. 24. Amsterdam, TheNetherlands: Developments in Petroleum Science, Elsevier Science PublishersB.V.
Pancharoen, M., Thiele, M.R., and Kovscek, A.R. 2010. Inaccessible PoreVolume of Associative Polymer Floods. Paper SPE 129910 presented at the SPEImproved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 24-28 April. doi: 10.2118/129910-MS.
Riaz, A., Tang, G.-Q., Tchelepi, H.A., and Kovscek, R. 2007. Forcedimbibition in natural porous media: Comparison between experiments andcontinuum models. Phys. Rev. E 75 (3): 036305. doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.75.036305.
Saffman, P.G. and Taylor, G.I. 1958. The penetration of a fluid into aporous medium or Hele-Shaw cell containing a more viscous liquid. Pro. R.Soc. London Ser. A 245 (1242): 312-329.
Seright, R.S., Seheult, M., and Talashak, T. 2009. InjectivityCharacteristics of EOR Polymers. SPE Res Eval & Eng 12(5): 783-792. SPE-115142-PA. doi:10.2118/115142-PA.
Tripathi, A., Tam, K.C., and McKinley, G.H. 2006. Rheology and Dynamics ofAssociative Polymers in Shear and Extension: Theory and Experiments.Macromolecules 39 (5): 1981-1999. doi:10.1021/ma051614x.
Upadhyaya, A. 2001. Visualization of Four-Phase Flow Using Micromodels. MSreport, Dept. of Petroleum Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford,California, USA.
van Meurs, P. 1957. The Use of Transparent Three-Dimensional Models forStudying the Mechanism of Flow Processes in Oil Reservoirs. In Transactionsof the American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and PetroleumEngineers, Vol. 210, Paper 678-G, 295-301. Dallas: Society of PetroleumEngineers.
van Meurs, P. and van der Poel, C. 1958. A Theoretical Description ofWater-Drive Processes Involving Viscous Fingering. SPE-931-G. Trans.,AIME, 213: 103-112.
Wang, D., Wang, G., Wu, W., Xia, H, and Yin, H. 2007. The Influence ofViscoelasticity on Displacment Efficiency--From Micro- to Macroscale. Paper SPE109016 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition,Anaheim, California, USA, 11-14 September. doi: 10.2118/109016-MS.
Wang, Y., Kovscek, A.R., and Brigham, W.E. 1999. Effect of Mobility Ratio onPattern Behavior of a Homogeneous Porous Medium. In Situ 23(1): 1-20.
Zhou, W., Zhang, J., Han, M., Xiang, W., Feng, G., Jiang, W., Sun, F., Zhou,S., Guo, Y., and Ye, Z. 2007. Application of Hydrophobically AssociatingWater-Soluble Polymer for Polymer Flooding in China Offshore Heavy Oilfield.Paper IPTC 11635 presented at the International Petroleum TechnologyConference, Dubai, 4-6 December. doi: 10.2523/11635-MS.