Stability of Partially Hydrolyzed Polyacrylamides at Elevated Temperatures in the Absence of Divalent Cations
- Randall S. Seright (New Mexico Tech) | Andrew Campbell (New Mexico Tech) | Peter Mozley (New Mexico Tech) | Peihui Han (Daqing Oilfield Company)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- June 2010
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 341 - 348
- 2010. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.3.4 Reduction of Residual Oil Saturation, 5.8.7 Carbonate Reservoir, 4.6 Natural Gas, 5.1.3 Sedimentology, 5.4.10 Microbial Methods, 5.4.7 Chemical Flooding Methods (e.g., Polymer, Solvent, Nitrogen, Immiscible CO2, Surfactant, Vapex), 6.3.6 Chemical Storage and Use, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control
- polyacrylamide stability; polymer flooding; polymer stability; chemical flooding; oxygen consumption in reservoirs
- 7 in the last 30 days
- 1,204 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
At elevated temperatures in aqueous solution, partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamides (HPAMs) experience hydrolysis of amide side groups. However, in the absence of dissolved oxygen and divalent cations, the polymer backbone can remain stable so that HPAM solutions were projected to maintain at least half their original viscosity for more than 8 years at 100°C and for approximately 2 years at 120°C. Within our experimental error, HPAM stability was the same with and without oil (decane). An acrylamide-AMPS copolymer [with 25% 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulphonic acid (AMPS)] showed similar stability to that for HPAM. Stability results were similar in brines with 0.3% NaCl, 3% NaCl, or 0.2% NaCl plus 0.1% NaHCO3. At temperatures of 160°C and greater, the polymers were more stable in brine with 2% NaCl plus 1% NaHCO3 than in the other brines. Even though no chemical oxygen scavengers or antioxidants were used in our study, we observed the highest level of thermal stability reported to date for these polymers. Our results provide considerable hope for the use of HPAM polymers in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) at temperatures up to 120°C if contact with dissolved oxygen and divalent cations can be minimized.
Calculations performed considering oxygen reaction with oil and pyrite revealed that dissolved oxygen will be removed quickly from injected waters and will not propagate very far into porous reservoir rock. These findings have two positive implications with respect to polymer floods in high-temperature reservoirs. First, dissolved oxygen that entered the reservoir before polymer injection will have been consumed and will not aggravate polymer degradation. Second, if an oxygen leak (in the surface facilities or piping) develops during the course of polymer injection, that oxygen will not compromise the stability of the polymer that was injected before the leak developed or the polymer that is injected after the leak is fixed. Of course, the polymer that is injected while the leak is active will be susceptible to oxidative degradation. Maintaining dissolved oxygen at undetectable levels is necessary to maximize polymer stability. This can be accomplished readily without the use of chemical oxygen scavengers or antioxidants.
|File Size||455 KB||Number of Pages||8|
Antonio, M.R., Karet, G.B., and Guzowski, J.P. Jr. 2000. Iron chemistry inpetroleum production. Fuel 79 (1): 37-45.doi:10.1016/S0016-2361(99)00132-5.
Bathurst, R.G.C. 1975. Carbonate Sediments and their Diagenesis,second edition, No. 12, 658. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Developments inSedimentology, Elsevier Science B.V.
Bethke, C.M. 2002. The Geochemist's Workbench--A User's Guide to Rxn,Act2, Tact, React and Gtplot, Release 4.0.3, 224. Ubana, Illinois:University of Illinois.
Burger, J.G. 1976. SpontaneousIgnition in Oil Reservoirs. SPE J. 16 (2): 73-81.SPE-5455-PA. doi: 10.2118/5455-PA.
Davison, P. and Mentzer, E. 1982. Polymer Flooding in North SeaReservoirs. SPE J. 22 (3): 353-362. SPE-9300-PA. doi:10.2118/9300-PA.
Doe, P.H., Moradi-Araghi, A., Shaw, J.E., and Stahl, G.A. 1987. Development and Evaluation of EORPolymers Suitable for Hostile Environments Part 1: Copolymers ofVinylpyrrolidone and Acrylamide. SPE Res Eng 2 (4):461-467. SPE-14233-PA. doi: 10.2118/14233-PA.
Fernández, A.M., Turrero, M.J., Sánchez, D.M., Yllera, A., Melón, A.M.,Sánchez, M., Peña, J. et al. 2007. On site measurementsof the redox and carbonate system parameters in the low-permeability OpalinusClay formation at the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory. Physics and Chemistryof the Earth, Parts A/B/C 32 (1-7): 181-195.doi:10.1016/j.pce.2006.02.057.
Garrels, R.M. and Christ, C.L. 1965. Solutions, Minerals andEquilibria, 450. New York: Harper & Row.
Gaynor, G.C. and Scheihing, M.H. 1988. Shelf Depositional Environments andReservoir Characteristics of the Kuparuk River Formation (Lower Cretaceous),Kuparuk Field, North Slope, Alaska. In Giant Oil and Gas Fields: A CoreWorkshop, Vol. 1-2, ed. A.J. Lomando and P.M. Hams, 333-389. Tulsa,Oklahoma: Core Workshop Notes, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).
Hartog, N., Griffioen, J., and van der Weijden, C.H. 2002. Distribution and Reactivity ofO2-Reducing Components in Sediments from a Layered Aquifer.Environ. Sci. Technol. 36 (11): 2338-2344.doi:10.1021/es015681s.
Hodson, M.E., Langan, S.J., and Meriau, S. 1998. Determination of mineralsurface area in relation to the calculation of weathering rates.Geoderma 83 (1-2): 35-54.doi:10.1016/S0016-7061(97)00136-5.
Johnson-Ibach, L.E. 1982. Relationship Between Sedimentation Rate and TotalOrganic Carbon Content in Ancient Marine Sediments. AAPG Bulletin66 (2): 170-188.
Knight, B.L. 1973. ReservoirStability of Polymer Solutions. J. Pet Tech 25 (5):618-626; Trans., AIME, 255. SPE-4167-PA. doi:10.2118/4167-PA.
Kubie, L.S. 1927. The Solubility of O2, CO2, and N2 in Mineral Oil and theTransfer of Carbon Dioxide from Oil to Air. Journal of BiologicalChemistry 72 (2): 545-548.
Lake, L.W. 1989. Enhanced Oil Recovery, 396-400. Englewood Cliffs,New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Langmuir, D. 1997. Aqueous Environmental Geochemistry, 600. UpperSaddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Levitt, D.B. and Pope, G.A. 2008. Selection and Screening of Polymersfor Enhanced-Oil Recovery. Paper SPE 113845 presented at the SPE/DOESymposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, 19-23 April. doi:10.2118/113845-MS.
Maitin, B.K. 1992. PerformanceAnalysis of Several Polyacrylamide Floods in North German Oil Fields. PaperSPE 24118 presented at the SPE/DOE Enhanced Recovery Oil Symposium, Tulsa,22-24 April. doi: 10.2118/24118-MS.
Melvin J. and Knight A.S. 1981. Lithofacies, Diagenesis and Porosity of theIvishak Formation, Prudhoe Bay Area, Alaska. In AAPG Memoir 37: ClasticDiagenesis, ed. D.A. McDonald and R.C. Surdam, 347-365. Tulsa, Oklahoma:AAPG.
Moradi-Araghi, A. and Doe, P.H. 1987. Hydrolysis and Precipitation ofPolyacrylamide in Hard Brines at Elevated Temperatures. SPE Res Eng 2 (2): 189-198.
Moradi-Araghi, A., Cleveland, D.H., Jones, W.W., and Westerman, I.J. 1987.Development and Evaluation of EORPolymers Suitable for Hostile Environments: II--Copolymers of Acrylamide andSodium AMPS. Paper SPE 16273 presented at the SPE International Symposiumon Oilfield Chemistry, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 4-6 February. doi:10.2118/16273-MS.
Muller, G. 1981. Thermalstability of polyacrylamide solutions: effect of residual impurities in themolecular-weight-degradation process upon heating. Polymer Bulletin 5 (1): 39-45. doi:10.1007/BF00255085.
Pettijohn, F.J., Potter, P.E., and Siever, R. 1987. Sand andSandstone, second edition, 553. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Pope, G.A., Lake, L.W., and Helfferich, F.G. 1978. Cation Exchange in Chemical Flooding:Part 1--Basic Theory Without Dispersion. SPE J. 18 (6):418-434. SPE-6771-PA. doi: 10.2118/6771-PA.
Prats, M. 1982. Thermal Recovery. Monograph Series, SPE, Richardson,Texas 7: 94.
Prommer, H. and Stuyfzand, P.J. 2005. Identification ofTemperature-Dependant Water Quality Changes during a Deep Well InjectionExperiment in a Pyritic Aquifer. Environ. Sci. Technol. 39 (7): 2200-2209. doi:10.1021/es0486768.
Ramsden, D.K. and McKay, K. 1986. The degradation ofpolyacrylamide in aqueous solution induced by chemically generated hydroxylradicals: Part II--Autoxidation of Fe2+. Polymer Degradationand Stability 15 (1): 15-31. doi:10.1016/0141-3910(86)90003-0.
Ryles, R.G. 1988. ChemicalStability Limits of Water-Soluble Polymers Used in Oil Recovery Processes.SPE Res Eng 3 (1): 23-34. SPE-13585-PA. doi:10.2118/13585-PA.
Santoso, E.A., Fanadi, A., Nasoetion, S. Moersidik, S.S., and Hamzah, U.S.2003. Zero Discharge Strategy onWater Quality, A Case Study in Minas OU. Paper SPE 80562 presented at theSPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Jakarta, 15-17 April.doi: 10.2118/80562-MS.
Seright, R.S. and Henrici, B.J. 1990. Xanthan Stability at ElevatedTemperatures. SPE Res Eng 5 (1): 52-60. SPE-14946-PA.doi: 10.2118/14946-PA.
Seright, R.S., Campbell, A.R., and Mozley, P.S. 2009. Stability of Partially HydrolyzedPolyacrylamides at Elevated Temperatures in the Absence of DivalentCations. Paper SPE 121460 presented at the SPE International Symposium onOilfield Chemistry, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 20-22 April. doi:10.2118/121460-MS.
Shupe, R.D. 1981. ChemicalStability of Polyacrylamide Polymers. J. Pet Tech 33(8): 1513-1529. SPE-9299-PA. doi: 10.2118/9299-PA.
Snavely, E.S. Jr. 1971. ChemicalRemoval of Oxygen from Natural Waters. J. Pet Tech 23(4): 443-446. SPE-3262-PA. doi: 10.2118/3262-PA.
Sohn, W.O., Maitin, B.K., and Volz, H. 1990. Preconditioning Concepts in PolymerFlooding in High-Salinity Reservoirs: Laboratory Investigations and CaseHistories. SPE Res Eng 5 (4): 503-507. SPE-17675-PA.doi: 10.2118/17675-PA.
Sverdrup, H. 1996. Geochemistry, the key tounderstanding environmental chemistry. Science of the TotalEnvironment 183 (1-2): 67-87.doi:10.1016/0048-9697(95)04978-9.
Sverdrup, H., de Vries, W., and Henriksen, A. 1990. Mapping CriticalLoads, 124. Geneva: Nordic Council of Ministers.
Tielong, C., Zhengyu, S., Fan, Y., Changzhong, H., Ling, Q., and Jinxing, T.1998. A Pilot Test of PolymerFlooding in an Elevated- Temperature Reservoir. SPE Res Eval &Eng 1 (1): 24-29. SPE-36708-PA. doi: 10.2118/36708-PA.
Wang, D., Han, P., Shao, Z., Hou, W., and Seright, R.S. 2008. Sweep Improvement Options for theDaqing Oil Field. SPE Res Eval & Eng 11 (1): 18-26.SPE-99441-PA. doi: 10.2118/99441-PA.
Weeter, R.F. 1965. Desorption ofOxygen From Water Using Natural Gas for Countercurrent Stripping. J. PetTech 17 (5): 515-520. SPE-933-PA. doi: 10.2118/933-PA.
Wellington, S.L. 1983. Biopolymer Solution ViscosityStabilization—Polymer Degradation and Antioxidant Use. SPE J. 23 (6): 901-912. SPE-9296-PA. doi: 10.2118/9296-PA.
Xu, T, White, S.P., Pruess, K., and Brimhall, G.H. 2000. Modeling of Pyrite Oxidationin Saturated and Unsaturated Subsurface Flow Systems. Transport inPorous Media 39 (1): 25-56. doi:10.1023/A:1006518725360.
Yang, S.H. and Treiber, L.E. 1985. Chemical Stability of PolyacrylamideUnder Simulated Field Conditions. Paper SPE 14232 presented at the SPEAnnual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, 22-26September. doi: 10.2118/14232-MS.
Zaitoun, A. and Potie, B. 1983. Limiting Conditions for the Use ofHydrolyzed Polyacrylamides in Brines Containing Divalent Ions. Paper SPE11785 presented at the SPE Oilfield and Geothermal Chemistry Symposium, Denver,1-3 June. doi: 10.2118/11785-MS.