- Boolean operators
- This OR that
This AND that
This NOT that
- Must include "This" and "That"
- This That
- Must not include "That"
- This -That
- "This" is optional
- This +That
- Exact phrase "This That"
- "This That"
- (this AND that) OR (that AND other)
- Specifying fields
- publisher:"Publisher Name"
author:(Smith OR Jones)
Injection of Supercritical CO2 Into Deep Saline Carbonate Formations: Predictions From Geochemical Modeling
- Guoxiang Zhang (Shell International E&P) | Conxita Taberner (Shell International E&P) | Linzey Cartwright (Shell International E&P) | Tianfu Xu (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- December 2011
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 959 - 967
- 2011. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 5.1.2 Faults and Fracture Characterisation
- reactive transport modeling, carbonate reservoir, CO2 sequestration, Pitzer ion-interaction model, TOUGHREACT
- 2 in the last 30 days
- 688 since 2007
- Show more detail
Modeling of supercritical CO2 injection into a deep saline carbonate formation (calcite and dolomite with minor anhydrite) was performed using TOUGHREACT (Xu et al. 2006) with Pitzer ion-interaction-model implementation for handling high-salinity problems (Zhang et al. 2006). The formation-brine salinity is approximately 225,000 ppm (NaCl dominant), the temperature is 102°C, and the pressure is 225 bar. The CO2 is injected through a horizontal well in a 3D model domain at a constant rate for a period of 1 year. The carbonate formation was assumed to have homogeneous porosity and permeability and to be overlain by an impermeable seal. The effect of a high-permeability fault with orientation perpendicular to the horizontal well and bounded by the impermeable overburden was evaluated. The changes in mineralogy and rock property during the injection have been assessed. The simulation results illustrate that (1) the high-permeability fault acts as a CO2 conduit; (2) a dry-out zone is developed within a few meters from the injection well because of displacement by supercritical CO2 and evaporation of water into the CO2 stream; (3) at the front of the dry-out zone, brine is further concentrated because of water evaporation into the supercritical CO2, the pH is lowered from 5.5 to 3.1, halite (NaCl) and anhydrite (CaSO4) precipitate, and the brine becomes CaCl2 dominant; (4) near-wellbore porosity reduces by approximately 5 - 17% (1 - 3 pu) because of halite precipitation in the dry-out zone; (5) HCl gas is generated from the dry-out front; (6) calcite and dolomite dissolve as the CO2 plume advances during injection; (7) anhydrite, however, slightly dissolves along the CO2 front but precipitates in the area corresponding to the CO2 plume, with higher proportions of this mineral precipitated near the wellbore dry-out zone.
These findings are valuable for the assessment of injectivity changes and near-wellbore stability of saline aquifers in carbonate formations during injection of CO2. The overall mineral trapping in hundreds of years is not the focus of this paper. The method of this study is useful for further evaluation of engineering options to enhance immobile trapping of CO2 and mitigation measures for potential injectivity impairment.
Baines, S.J. and Worden, R.H. 2004. The Long-Term Fate of CO2 in theSubsurface: Natural Analogues for CO2 Storage. In Geological Storage ofCarbon Dioxide, ed. S.J. Baines and R.H. Worden, No. 233, 59-85. Bath, UK:Special Publication, Geological Society Publishing House.
Benson, S.M. and Cole, D.R. 2008. CO2 Sequestration in DeepSedimentary Formations. Elements 4 (5): 325-331.doi:10.2113/gselements.4.5.325.
Chadwick, R.A., Holloway, S., Brook, M.S., and Kirby, G.A. 2004. The Casefor Underground CO2 Sequestration in Northern Europe. In Geological Storageof Carbon Dioxide, ed. S.J. Baines and R.H. Worden, No. 233, 17-28. Bath,UK: Special Publication, Geological Society Publishing House.
Collettini, C., Cardellini, C. Chiodini, G., De Paola, N., Holdsworth, R.E.,and Smith, S.A.F. 2008. Fault Weakening Due to CO2 Degassing in the NorthernApennines: Short- and Long-Term Processes. In The Internal Structure ofFault Zones: Implications for Mechanical and Fluid-Flow Properties, ed.C.A.J. Wibberley, W. Kurz, J. Imber, R.E. Holdsworth, and C. Collettini, No.299, 175-194. Bath, UK: Special Publication, Geological Society PublishingHouse.
Dashtgard, S.E., Buschkuehle, M.B.E., Fairgrieve, B., and Berhane, H. 2008.GeologicalCharacterization and Potential of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Enhanced Oil Recovery inthe Cardium Formation, Central Pembina Field, Alberta. Bulletin ofCanadian Petroleum Geology 56 (2): 147-164. doi:10.2113/gscpgbull.56.2.147.
Doughty, C. and Pruess, K. 2004. Modeling Supercritical Carbon DioxideInjection in Heterogeneous Porous Media. Vadose Zone Journal 3 (3): 837-847. doi: 10.2113/3.3.837.
Emberley, S., Hutcheon, I., Shevalier, M., Durocher, K., Mayer, B., Gunter,W.D., and Perkins, E.H. 2005. Monitoring ofFluid-Rock Interaction and CO2 Storage Through Produced Fluid Sampling at theWeyburn CO2-Injection Enhanced Oil Recovery Site, Saskatchewan, Canada.Applied Geochemistry 20 (6): 1131-1157. doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2005.02.007.
Förster, A., Norden, B., Zinck-Jørgensen, K., Frykman, P., Kulenkampff, J.,Spangenberg, E., Erzinger, J. et al. 2006. Baseline Characterization ofthe CO2SINK Geological Storage Site at Ketzin, Germany. EnvironmentalGeosciences 13 (3): 145-161. doi: 10.1306/eg.02080605016.
Friedmann, S.J. 2007. Geological Carbon DioxideSequestration. Elements 3 (3): 179-184. doi:10.2113/gselements.3.3.179.
Gale, J. 2004. Why Do We Need To Consider Geological Storage of CO2? InGeological Storage of Carbon Dioxide, ed. S.J. Baines and R.H. Worden,No. 233, 7-15. Bath, UK: Special Publication, Geological Society PublishingHouse.
Harvie, C.E., Møller, N., and Weare, J.H. 1984. The Prediction of MineralSolubilities in Natural Waters: The Na-K-Mg-Ca-H-Cl-SO4-OH-HCO3-CO3-H2O-Systemto High Ionic Strengths at 25°C. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 48 (4): 723-751. doi: 10.1016/0016-7037(84)90098-X.
Helgeson, H.C., Kirkham, D.H., and Flowers, G.C. 1981. Theoretical Prediction of theThermodynamic Behavior of Aqueous Electrolytes by High Pressures andTemperatures; IV, Calculation of Activity Coefficients, Osmotic Coefficients,and Apparent Molal and Standard and Relative Partial Molal Properties to 600degrees C and 5 kb. American Journal of Science 281(December): 1249-1516. doi: 10.2475/ajs.281.10.1249.
Holz, M.H., Nance, P.K., and Finley, R.J. 2001. Reduction of Greenhouse GasEmissions Through CO2 EOR in Texas. Environmental Geosciences 8 (3): 187-199.
Johnson, J.W., Nitao, J.J. and Knauss, K.G. 2004. Reactive TransportModeling of CO2 Storage in Saline Aquifers To Elucidate Fundamental Processes,Trapping Mechanisms and Sequestration Partitioning. In Geological Storage ofCarbon Dioxide, ed. S.J. Baines and R.H. Worden, No. 233, 107-128. Bath,UK: Special Publication, Geological Society Publishing House.
Jove-Colon, C., Wolery, T.J., Jarek, R.L., and Wijesinghe, A. 2007. PitzerDatabase Development: Description of the Pitzer Geochemical ThermodynamicDatabase data0.ypf. In In-drift Precipitates/Salts Model, ed. P.Mariner, Appendix I. Report No. ANL-EBS-MD-000045 REV 03, DOC.20070306.0037,Bechtel SAIC Company/Sandia National Laboratories, Las Vegas, Nevada.
Kavitskaya, A.A., Knyazkova, T.V., and Maynarovich, A.A. 2000. ReverseOsmosis of Concentrated Calcium Sulphate Solutions in the presence of Iron(III) Ions Using Composite Membranes. Desalination 132(2000): 281-286.
Li, G. 2003. 4D SeismicMonitoring of CO2 Flood in a Thin Fractured Carbonate Reservoir. TheLeading Edge 22 (7): 690-695. doi: 10.1190/1.1599698.
Newton, R.C. and Manning, C.E. 2005. Solubility of Anhydrite, CaSO4, inNaCl-H2O Solutions at High Pressures and Temperatures: Applications toFluid-Rock Interaction. Journal of Petrology 46 (4):701-706.
Pitzer, K.S. 1973. Thermodynamics of electrolytes. I.Theoretical Basis and General Equations. J. Phys. Chem. 77 (2): 268. doi: 10.1021/j100621a026.
Pitzer, K.S. 1991. Ion Interaction Approach: Theory and Data Correlation. InActivity Coefficients in Electrolytes Solutions, second edition, ed.K.S. Pitzer, 75. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.
Pruess, K., Oldenburg, C., and Moridis, G. 1999. TOUGH2 User's GuideVersion 2. Berkeley, California: Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley NationalLaboratory.
Pruess, K., Xu, T., Apps, J., and Garcia, J. 2003. Numerical Modeling of AquiferDisposal of CO2. SPE J. 8 (1): 49-60. SPE-83695-PA.doi: 10.2118/83695-PA.
Weast, R.C. 1973. Physical constants of inorganic compounds. In Handbookof Chemistry and Physics, 54th revised edition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRCPress.
Wolery, T.J. and Jarek, R.L. 2003. EQ3/6, Version 8.0 software's usermanual. Software document no. 10813-UM-80-00, US DOE Office of CivilianRadioactive Waste Management, Office of Repository Development, Las Vegas,Nevada.
Wolery, T.J., Jove-Colon, C., Jarek, R.L., and Wijesinghe, A. 2004. PitzerDatabase Development: Description of the Pitzer Geochemical ThermodynamicDatabase data0.ypf. In In-drift Precipitates/Salts Model, ed. P.Mariner, Appendix I. Report No. ANL-EBS-MD-000045 REV 02, Bechtel SAIC Company,Las Vegas, Nevada.
Xu, T., Apps, J.A., and Pruess, K. 2004. Numerical Simulationof CO2 Disposal by Mineral Trapping in Deep Aquifers. AppliedGeochemistry 19 (6): 917-936. doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2003.11.003.
Xu, T., Sonnenthal, E., Spycher, N., Zhang, G., Zheng, L., and Pruess, L.2009. TOUGH 2 Workshop presented at TOUGH Symposium 2009, Lawrence BerkeleyNational Laboratory, Berkeley, California, USA, 14-16.
Xu, T., Sonnenthal, E.L., Spycher, N., and Pruess, K. 2006. TOUGHREACT--A SimulationProgram for Non-Isothermal Multiphase Reactive Geochemical Transport inVariably Saturated Geologic Media: Applications to Geothermal Injectivity andCO2 Geological Sequestration. Computers & Geosciences 32 (2): 145-165. doi: 10.1016/j.cageo.2005.06.014.
Zhang, G., Spycher, N., Sonnenthal, E., and Steefel, C. 2009. Modeling Acid-Gas GenerationFrom Boiling Chloride Brines. Geochemical Transactions 10: 11. doi: 10.1186/1467-4866-10-11.
Zhang, G., Spycher N., Sonnenthal, E., Steefel, C., and Xu, T. 2008.Modeling Reactive Multiphase Flow and Transport of Concentrated Solutions.Nuclear Technology 146 (2): 180-195.
Zhang, G., Spycher N., Xu, T., Sonnenthal, E., and Steefel, C. 2006.Reactive Geochemical Transport Modeling of Concentrated Aqueous Solutions:Supplement to TOUGHREACT User's Guide for the Pitzer ion-interaction model.Report LBNL-62718, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California(December 2006).
Zhang, G., Zheng, Z., and J. Wan, 2005. Modeling Reactive GeochemicalTransport of Concentrated Aqueous Solutions. Water Resour. Res. 41: W02018. doi: 10.1029/2004WR003097.
Not finding what you're looking for? Some of the OnePetro partner societies have developed subject- specific wikis that may help.
The SEG Wiki
The SEG Wiki is a useful collection of information for working geophysicists, educators, and students in the field of geophysics. The initial content has been derived from : Robert E. Sheriff's Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied Geophysics, fourth edition.