Development, Testing, and Field Application of a Heavy-Oil Pipeline-Cleaning Chemical: A Cradle-to-Grave Case History
- Jonathan J. Wylde (Clariant Oil Services) | Jubal J.L. Slayer (Clariant Oil Services)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Projects, Facilities & Construction
- Publication Date
- March 2010
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 22 - 30
- 2010. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.9.3 Pipeline Pigging, 4.2.3 Materials and Corrosion, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant), 5.3.2 Multiphase Flow, 4.3.3 Aspaltenes, 4.3.4 Scale, 4.9 Facilities Operations, 1.10.1 Drill string components and drilling tools (tubulars, jars, subs, stabilisers, reamers, etc), 5.1.1 Exploration, Development, Structural Geology, 4.6 Natural Gas, 5.3.4 Integration of geomechanics in models, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 4.2 Pipelines, Flowlines and Risers
- 2 in the last 30 days
- 789 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
This paper details the complete evolution of a new cleaning chemical for heavy-oil and gas pipelines. Information is offered regarding the reason for development, the research involved in formulation of the new product, and the laboratory testing. This paper concludes by giving several case histories of application in cleaning operations in the western United States and Texas.
Oil naturally contains paraffins, asphaltenes, and naphthenates. During transport, these hydrocarbon components can precipitate and adhere to the pipeline walls and can become associated with iron sulfide scale. Corrosion can often occur on pipeline walls under these organic deposits. Pigging operations are normally performed to remove organic and inorganic debris from the walls of a pipeline. However, these scales can become very compacted and adhere to the walls of the pipeline. It is often necessary to add surfactant-based chemicals to assist in the breakup, softening, and transportation of these deposits.
A literature review of the current theory in the chemistry of pipeline-cleaning chemicals is presented together with a critical account of the key properties required of these chemistries: wettability alteration, solubilization efficacy of organic materials, emulsification of phases, dispersion, detergency, and defoaming.
An explanation of the laboratory development and evaluation has been given as a preamble for the case histories. One case history details how a pipeline operator unsuccessfully tried to clean a 12-in., 9-mile section of pipeline with a pig. The pig was launched and became stuck along the length of the pipeline. Application of the newly developed product was able to free the stuck pig and removed significant debris. By way of conclusion, the paper offers suggestions on how chemicals can be most efficiently used in conjunction with these programs.
|File Size||868 KB||Number of Pages||9|
Bordalo, S.N. and Oliveira, R.C. 2007. Experimental Study of Oil/Water FlowWith Paraffin Precipitation in Subsea Pipelines. Paper SPE 110810 presentedat the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Anaheim, California,USA, 11-14 November. doi: 10.2118/110810-MS.
Buzelin, L.O.S. and de Campos Lima, C.B. 2008. Innovative Methodology for CleaningPipes--Key to Environmental Protection. Paper SPE 111612 presented at theSPE International Conference on Health, Safety, and Environment in Oil and GasExploration and Production, Nice, France, 15-17 April. doi:10.2118/111612-MS.
Clariant Oil Services. 2008. Wax/Asphaltene Dissolver Tests. In-house testprocedure QPI 106, Rev. 2.
Cordell, J. and Vanzant, H. 2003. Pipeline Pigging Handbook. Houston:Clarion Technical Publishers.
Craddock, H.A., Campbell, E., Sowerby, K., Johnson, M., McGregor, S., andMcGee, G. 2007. The Applicationof Wax Dissolver in the Enhancement of Export Line Cleaning. Paper SPE105049 presented at the International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, Houston,28 February-2 March. doi: 10.2118/105049-MS.
Friedli, F.E. ed. 2001. Detergency of Specialty Surfactants, Vol. 98.New York: Surfactant Science Series, Marcel Dekker.
Javora, P.H., Baccigalopi, G., Sanford, J., Cordeddu, C., Qu, Q., Poole, G.,and Franklin, B. 2008. EffectiveHigh-Density Wellbore Cleaning Fluids: Brine-Based and Solids-Free. SPEDrill & Compl 23 (1): 48-54. SPE-99158-PA. doi:10.2118/99158-PA.
Lange, K.R. ed. 1994. Detergents and Cleaners: A Handbook forFormulators. Munich, Germany: Hanser Publishers.
Nasr-El-Din, H.A., Al-Humaidan, A.Y., Mohamed, S.K., Al-Salman, A.M. 2001.Iron Sulfide Formation in WaterSupply Wells With Gas Lift. Paper SPE 65028 presented at the SPEInternational Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, Houston, 13-16 February. doi:10.2118/65028-MS.
Poole, G., Brock, G., Szymczak, S., and Casey, G. 2008. Successful Pipeline Clean Out -Lessons Learned From Cleaning Paraffin Blockage From a Deepwater Pipeline.Paper SPE 115658 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference andExhibition, Denver, 21-24 September. doi: 10.2118/115658-MS.
Thompson, L. 1994. TheRole of Oil Detachment Mechanisms in Determining Optimum DetergencyConditions. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 163 (1): 61-73. doi:10.1006/jcis.1994.1080.
Trahan, D.O. 2008. Arsenic Compounds in Natural Gas Pipeline Operations.Pipeline & Gas Journal (01 March 2008).
Wylde, J.J. and Duthie, A.W. 2008. Root Cause Failure Analysis, Removal andMitigation of Iron Sulfide Scale Deposition in the BP Bruce Produced WaterReinjection Plant. Paper 08350 presented at the NACE International CORROSION2008 Conference and Expo, New Orleans, 16-20 March.