Stress Amplification and Arch Dimensions in Proppant Beds Deposited by Waterfracs
- Norman R. Warpinski (Pinnacle)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- November 2010
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 461 - 471
- 2010. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 3.2.5 Produced Sand / Solids Management and Control, 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant), 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control
- stress amplification, arch dimensions, proppant transport, proppant dunes, hydraulic fracturing
- 5 in the last 30 days
- 578 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Equations and a procedure have been developed to calculate the excess stress induced on a proppant dune that is deposited by a waterfrac with poor proppant-transport characteristics. This method also calculates the dimensions of an arch region that forms above the bed. Stresses on the proppant at the top of such a dune are much greater than usually considered because of the need to support a wide proppant bed and the arch, suggesting that crushing and embedment are likely. The arch region itself is an extremely-high-conductivity pathway that may provide overall benefit in terms of cleanup and production, but may also aid sand production.
|File Size||923 KB||Number of Pages||11|
Babcock, R.E., Prokop, C.L., and Kehle, R.O. 1967. Distribution of ProppingAgents in Vertical Fractures. Producers Monthly 31 (11):11-17.
Barree, R.D., Cox, S.A., Barree, V.L. and Conway, M.W. 2003. RealisticAssessment of Proppant Pack Conductivity for Material Selection. Paper SPE84306 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver,Colorado, 5-8 October.
Britt, L.K., Smith, M.B., Haddad, Z., Lawrence, P., Chipperfield, S., andHellman, T. 2006. Water-Fracs: WeDo Need Proppant After All. Paper SPE 102227 presented at the SPE AnnualTechnical Conference, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 24-27 September. doi:10.2118/102227-MS.
Cleary, M.P. 1980. Analysis ofMechanisms and Procedures for Producing Favourable Shapes of HydraulicFractures. Paper SPE 9260 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conferenceand Exhibition, Dallas, 21-24 September. doi: 10.2118/9260-MS.
Cooke, C.E. 1977. Fracturingwith a High-Strength Proppant. J Pet Technol 29 (10):1222-1226. SPE-6213-PA. doi: 10.2118/6213-PA.
Daneshy, A.A. 1978. NumericalSolution of Sand Transport in Hydraulic Fracturing. J Pet Technol 30 (1): 132-140. SPE-5636-PA. doi: 10.2118/5636-PA.
England, A.H. and Green, A.E. 1963. Some Two-Dimensional Punchand Crack Problems in Classical Elasticity. Mathematical Proceedings ofthe Cambridge Philosophical Society 59 (2): 489-500. doi:10.1017/S0305004100036860.
Fredd, C.N., McConnell, S.B., Boney, C.L., and England, K.W. 2001. Experimental Study of FractureConductivity for Water-Fracturing and Conventional Fracturing Applications.SPE J. 6 (3): 288-298. SPE-74138-PA. doi:10.2118/74138-PA.
Howard, G.C. and Fast, C.R. 1970. Hydraulic Fracturing. MonographSeries, SPE, Richardson, Texas 2: 59-90.
Huitt, J.L. and McGlothlin, B.B. Jr. 1958. The propping of fractures informations susceptible to propping-sand embedment. Drill. & Prod.Prac. 115.
Huitt, J.L., McGlothlin, B.B. Jr., and McDonald, J.F. 1958. The propping offractures in formations in which propping sand crushes. Drill. & Prod.Prac. 115.
Kern, L.R., Perkins, T.K., and Wyant, R.E. 1959. The Mechanics of Sand Movement inFracturing. J Pet Technol 11 (7): 55-57; Trans.,AIME, 216. SPE-1108-G. doi: 10.2118/1108-G.
McGlothlin, B.B. and Huitt, J.L. 1966. Relation of Formation Rock Strength toPropping Agent Strength in Hydraulic Fracturing. J Pet Technol 18 (3): 377-384; Trans., AIME, 237. SPE-1131-PA.doi: 10.2118/1131-PA.
McLennan, J.D., Green, S.J., and Bai, M. 2008. Proppant Placement DuringTight Gas Shale Stimulation: Literature Review and Speculation. Paper ARMA08-355 presented at the US Rock Mechanics Symposium, San Francisco, California,USA, 29 June-2 July.
Milton-Taylor, D.C., Stephenson, C., and Asgian, M.I. 1992. Factors Affecting the Stability ofProppant in Propped Fractures: Results of a Laboratory Study. Paper SPE24821 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition,Washington, DC, 4-7 October. doi: 10.2118/24821-MS.
Novotny, E.J. 1977. ProppantTransport. Paper SPE 6813 presented at the SPE Annual Fall TechnicalConference and Exhibition, Denver, 9-12 October. doi: 10.2118/6813-MS.
Rice, J.R. 1968. Mathematical Analysis in the Mechanics of Fracture. InFracture: An Advanced Treatise, ed. H. Liebowitz, Vol II, Chap. 3, 220.New York: Academic Press.
Schols, R.S. and Visser, W. 1974. Proppant Bank Buildup in a VerticalFracture without Fluid Loss. Paper SPE 4834 presented at the SPE EuropeanSpring Meeting, Amsterdam, 29-30 May. doi: 10.2118/4834-MS.
Schubarth, S.K., Cobb, S.L., and Jeffrey, R.G. 1997. Understanding Proppant ClosureStress. Paper SPE 37489 presented at the SPE Production OperationsSymposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 9-11 March. doi: 10.2118/37489-MS.
Sneddon, I.N. and Elliot, H.A. 1946. The Opening of a Griffith Crack underInternal Pressure. Quarterly of Applied Mathematics 4:262-267.
Sneddon, I.N. and Lowengrud, M. 1970. Crack Problems in the ClassicalTheory of Elasticity, 20-30. New York: SIAM Series in Applied Mathematics,John Wiley & Sons.