Numerical Simulation of the In-Situ Upgrading of Oil Shale
- Yaqing Fan (Stanford University) | Louis Durlofsky (Stanford University) | Hamdi A. Tchelepi (Stanford University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- June 2010
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 368 - 381
- 2010. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.10.1 CO2 Capture and Sequestration, 5.1.1 Exploration, Development, Structural Geology, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.5.8 History Matching, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 4.3.4 Scale, 1.10.1 Drill string components and drilling tools (tubulars, jars, subs, stabilisers, reamers, etc)
- Thermal In-situ Upgrading Process
- 4 in the last 30 days
- 1,280 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Oil shale is a highly abundant energy resource, though commercial production has yet to be realized. Thermal in-situ upgrading processes for producing hydrocarbons from oil shale have gained attention recently, however, in part because of promising results reported by Shell using its in-situ conversion process (Crawford et al. 2008). This and similar processes entail heating the oil shale to approximately 700°F (371°C), where the kerogen in the shale decomposes through a series of chemical reactions into liquid and gas products. In this paper, we present a detailed numerical formulation of the in-situ upgrading process. Our model, which can be characterized as a thermal/compositional, chemical reaction, and flow formulation, is implemented into Stanford's General Purpose Research Simulator (GPRS). The formulation includes strongly temperature-dependent kinetic reactions, fully compositional flow and transport, and a model for the introduction of heat into the formation through downhole heaters. We present detailed simulation results for representative systems. The model and heating patterns are based on information in Shell publications; chemical-reaction and thermodynamic data are from previously reported pyrolysis experiments. After a relatively modest degree of parameter adjustment (with parameters restricted to physically realistic ranges), our results for oil and gas production are in reasonable agreement with available field data. We also investigate various sensitivities and show how production is affected by heater temperature and location. The ability to model these effects will be essential for the eventual design and optimization of in-situ upgrading operations.
|File Size||860 KB||Number of Pages||14|
Biglarbigi, K., Dammer, A., Cusimano, J., and Mohan, H. 2007. Potential for Oil Shale Developmentin the United States. Paper SPE 110590 presented at the SPE AnnualTechnical Conference and Exhibition, Anaheim, California, USA, 11-14 November.doi: 10.2118/110590-MS.
Brandt A.R. 2008. ConvertingOil Shale to Liquid Fuels: Energy Inputs and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of theShell in Situ Conversion Process. Environ. Sci. Technol. 42 (19): 7489-7495. doi: 10.1021/es800531f.
Braun R.L. and Burnham A.K. 1990. Mathematical Model of OilGeneration, Degradation, and Expulsion. Energy & Fuels 4 (2): 132-146. doi: 10.1021/ef00020a002.
Burnham A.K. and Braun R.L. 1984. General Kinetic Model of Oil ShalePyrolysis. Report UCRL-89805, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,Livermore, California.
Burnham A.K. and Braun R.L. 1993. Chemical Reaction Model for Oil and GasGeneration from Type I and Type II Kerogen. Report UCRL-ID-114143, LawrenceLivermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California.
Cao, H. 2002. Development of Techniques for General Purpose Simulators. PhDthesis, Stanford University, Stanford, California.
Crawford, P.M., Biglarbigi, K., Dammer, A.R., and Knaus, E. 2008. Advances in World Oil ShaleTechnologies. Paper SPE 116570 presented at the SPE Annual TechnicalConference and Exhibition, Denver, 21-24 September. doi: 10.2118/116570-MS.
Dyni, J.R. 2006. Geology and Resources of Some World Oil-Shale Deposits.Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5294, US Geological Survey, Reston,Virginia (posted June 2006).
Fowler, T.D. and Vinegar, H.J. 2009. Oil Shale ICP--Colorado FieldPilots. Paper SPE 121164 presented at the SPE Western Regional Meeting, SanJose, California, USA, 24-26 March. doi: 10.2118/121164-MS.
Jiang, Y. 2008. Techniques for Modeling Complex Reservoirs and AdvancedWells. Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University, Stanford, California.
Jossi, J.A., Steil, L.I., and Thodos, G. 1962. The Viscosity of Pure Substancesin the Dense Gaseous and Liquid Phases. AIChE Journal 8(1): 59-63. doi: 10.1002/aic.690080116.
Lake, L.W. 1989. Enhanced Oil Recovery. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey:Prentice Hall.
Lee S., Speight J.G., and Loyalka S.K. 2007. Handbook of Alternative FuelTechnologies. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.
Miadonye, A., Singh, B., and Puttagunta, V.R. 1994. Modeling theViscosity-Temperature Relationship of Alberta Bitumens. Fuel Sci. andTech. International 12 (2): 335-350. doi:10.1080/08843759408916182.
Nottenburg, R., Rajeshwar, K., Rosenvold, R., and DuBow, J. 1978. Measurement of ThermalConductivity of Green River Oil Shales by a Thermal Comparator Technique.Fuel 57 (12): 789-795. doi:10.1016/0016-2361(78)90141-2.
Pan, Z., Feng, H.Y., and Smith, J.M. 1984. Rates of Pyrolysis of ColoradoOil Shale. AIChE Journal 31 (5): 721-728. doi:10.1002/aic.690310504.
Passut, C.A. and Danner, R.P. 1972. Correlation of Ideal Gas Enthalpy,Heat Capacity, and Entropy. Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev. 11 (4): 543-546. doi: 10.1021/i260044a016.
Peters, K.E., Walters, C.C., and Moldowan, J.M. 2005. The BiomarkerGuide, Volume 2: Biomarkers and Isotopes in Petroleum Exploration and EarthHistory, second edition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
STARS User Manual. 2008. Calgary, Alberta: Computer Modelling Group(CMG).
Vinegar, H. 2006. Shell's In-situ Conversion Process. Presented at theColorado Energy Research Institute 26th Oil Shale Symposium, Golden, Colorado,USA, 16-18 October. Downloaded 31 October 2008 from http://www.ceri-mines.org/documents/R05a-HaroldVinegar.pdf.
Wellington, S.L., Berchenko, I.E., Rouffgnac, E.P., Fowler, T.D., Ryan,R.C., Shahlin, G.T., Stegemeier, G.L., Vinegar, H.J., and Zhang, E. 2005. InSitu Thermal Processing of an Oil Shale Formation To Produce a Desired Product.US Patent No. 6,880,633.
WinProp User Manual. 2008. Calgary, Alberta: Computer Modelling Group(CMG).