A New Approach to the Two-Dimensional Multiphase Reservoir Simulator
- R.G. Fagin | C.H. Stewart Jr.
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal
- Publication Date
- June 1966
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 175 - 182
- 1966. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 6.5.2 Water use, produced water discharge and disposal, 3.1.6 Gas Lift, 5.3.1 Flow in Porous Media, 4.6 Natural Gas, 5.1.2 Faults and Fracture Characterisation, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 1.2.3 Rock properties, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 5.5.8 History Matching, 3 Production and Well Operations, 3.1 Artificial Lift Systems, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 5.4.2 Gas Injection Methods, 5.3.2 Multiphase Flow, 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 2.2.2 Perforating
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A two-dimensional, three-phase reservoir simulator was programed for a large memory digital computer. It was designed to provide a practical solution to describing the complex physical relation between the natural forces and the physical properties of a heterogeneous reservoir when subjected to a specific set of conditions. A reservoir study is briefly described to illustrate application of the model. A full volumetric account of three phases (oil, gas and water) is performed simultaneously throughout an integration net representing the reservoir. Absence of one or two of the phases is treated as a special case of the more general situation. Expansion (or contraction) of all phases, including rock expansion, is performed so that the pressure calculation is the general unsteady-state case. To account for the large variations of subsurface elevation encountered in some reservoirs, and to allow for segregation of the various phases, a gravity head term is included in the basic drive potential. Appropriate fluid and rock properties are used in polynominal surface form (functions of pressure and/or depth) or they can be entered as space variables at each position of the integration net. An unsteady-state water influx calculation, based on the method of van Everdingen and Hurst, was connected to the boundary of the matrix to simulate aquifers of various sizes. In addition to reservoir calculations, three-phase fluid flow from the producing depth to the wellhead, including provisions for gas lift, was incorporated in the simulator. A workover routine was also built which can automatically switch to a different set of production relations when a gas-oil ratio or water fraction reaches a limit; or it can shut-in the well if prescribed.
This paper describes a reservoir engineering mathematical simulator used to represent the complex interaction of natural forces and physical properties of a reservoir during natural depletion or with various injection schemes. The simulator, which was programed for a large memory digital computer, is a two-dimensional calculation which handles three mobile fluid phases simultaneously (oil, gas and water). Basic requisites for the method are individual well production and pressure data, hydrocarbon fluid properties, geological data (producing depth and net sand), capillary pressure data, relative permeability data and permeability and porosity information. Matching the past performance of a combination drive reservoir often has yielded information concerning continuity and the validity of basic data. Detailed predictions of future performance can be made for continuation of current depletion methods (natural depletion) as well as for various types of recovery by gas or water injection. Combination injection cases and pattern studies can also be performed. Workover programs, gas lift and different types of artificial lift programs have been investigated using a technique similar to that described by Kern and Nicholson except that conditions of pressure and saturation at the block within which the well is located are used rather than average reservoir conditions. Drilling additional wells to optimize profit was explored, both as to number and location, by placing wells at different spots within the reservoir matrix. Special depletion processes can be examined, such as upstructure drainage and lateral (or strike) waterfloods in thin oil columns. In one case the mathematics of the simulator were modified to calculate the displacement in the vertical plane rather than in the horizontal plane. In this manner specific reservoir problems can be studied, such as coning of gas and/or water around production points, fingering along permeable stringers or, more generally, frontal advances in a heterogeneous section.
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