Application of the Bergman-Sutton Method for Determining Blend Viscosity
- Robert P. Sutton (Marathon Oil Company) | David F. Bergman (BP America)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- February 2012
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 106 - 124
- 2012. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 4.2 Pipelines, Flowlines and Risers, 1.11 Drilling Fluids and Materials
- 1 in the last 30 days
- 715 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
As the petroleum industry accesses more low-gravity-oil resources, modification of viscosity by blending lighter hydrocarbons has become a necessity in order to attain bulk properties that will flow though a pipeline. In the more conventional oil reservoirs, the need to estimate the viscosity of oil blends occurs when reservoir fluids are contaminated with oil-based muds or when production streams from different reservoirs or fields are commingled in a single pipeline. Several methods have appeared in the literature for estimating blend viscosity. All of these methods require a measured viscosity for each component of the blend. The number of viscosity measurements is compounded when the viscosity of the blended mixture is required at several temperatures. Of the viscosity correlations published, the Bergman and Sutton method has the widest range of temperature and oil API gravity and has been consistently demonstrated to provide accurate results over these conditions. This method requires the component specific gravity, the Watson characterization factor (Watson K factor), and temperature to estimate viscosity. By using the proper mixing rules, an estimate of blend viscosity can be made with comparable or improved accuracy over the "best" published methods without the need for individual-component viscosity measurements. A database of 2,059 blend-viscosity measurements from more than 800 mixtures was created to compare the accuracy of the various methods. Viscosity measurements of the individual components in the blends studied exceeded 7,600 data points. A diverse group of mixtures, ranging from light alkane or aromatic pure components to bitumen, diesel, biodiesel, condensate, crude, and assay fractions, was included in this database. Blends comprised the typical binary mixtures but ranged up to a maximum of eight components in the mixture.
|File Size||3 MB||Number of Pages||19|
Al-Besharah, J.M. 1989. The Effect of Blending on Selected PhysicalProperties of Crude Oils and Their Products. PhD dissertation, University ofAshton, Birmingham, Alabama (February 1989).
Al-Besharah, J.M., Akashah, S.A., and Mumford, C.J. 1989. The effect oftemperature and pressure on the viscosities of crude oils and their mixtures.Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 28 (2): 213-221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ie00086a014.
Al-Besharah, J.M., Salman, O.A., and Akashah, S.A. 1987. Viscosity of crudeoil blends. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 26 (12): 2445-2449. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ie00072a010.
Anhorn, J.L. and Badakhshan, A. 1994. MTBE: A Carrier for Heavy OilTransportation and Viscosity Mixing Rule Applicability. J. Cdn. Pet.Tech. 33 (4): 17-21.
API MPMS 12.3, Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards, Chapter 12:Calculation of Petroleum Quantities—Section 3: Calculation of VolumetricShrinkage Resulting From Blending Light Hydrocarbons With Crude Oil. 2006.Washington, DC: API.
API Technical Data Book--Petroleum Refining, sixth edition, Chap. 11.1997. Washington, DC: API.
ASTM D2161-05, Standard Practice for Conversion of Kinematic Viscosity toSaybolt Universal Viscosity or to Saybolt Furol Viscosity. 2005. WestConshohocken, Pennsylvania: ASTM International. http://dx.doi.org/10.1520/D2161-05.
Baird, C.T. IV. 1989. Guide To Petroleum Product Blending, Chap. 8.Flagstaff, Arizona: HPI Consultants, Inc.
Barrufet, M.A. and Setiadarma, A. 2003. Reliable heavy oil-solvent viscositymixing rules for viscosities up to 450 K, oil-solvent viscosity ratiosup to 4 x 105, and any solvent proportion. Fluid PhaseEquilibria 213 (1-2): 65-79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3812(03)00285-1.
Barrufet, M.A., Hall, K.R., Estrada-Baltazar, A., and Iglesias-Silva, G.A.1999. Liquid Viscosity of Octane and Pentane + Octane Mixtures from 298.15K to 373.15 K Up To 25 MPa. J. Chem. Eng. Data 44 (6): 1310-1314. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/je990043z.
Bergman, D.F. and Sutton, R.P. 2007. A Consistent and AccurateDead-Oil-Viscosity Method. Paper SPE 110194 presented at the SPE AnnualTechnical Conference and Exhibition, Anaheim, California, USA, 11-14 November.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/110194-MS.
Chevron Crude Oil Assays. Chevron Crude Oil Marketing, http://crudemarketing.chevron.com/.
Cragoe, C.S. 1933. Changes in the Viscosity of Liquids with Temperature,Pressure and Composition. Proc., 1st World Petroleum Congress, London,18-24 July, Paper WPC 201, 529-541.
Degiorgis, G.L., Maturano, S., Garay, M., Galliano, G.R., and Fornes, A.2001. Oil Mixture Viscosity Behavior: Use in Pipeline Design. Paper SPE 69420presented at the SPE Latin American and Caribbean Petroleum EngineeringConference, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 25-28 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/69420-MS.
Díaz, R.M., Berardo, I., Fernández, A.M., and Folgueras, M.B. 1986.Prediction of the viscosity of lubricating oil blends at any temperature.Fuel 75 (5): 574-578. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0016-2361(95)00289-8.
Drayer, D.E. 1985. Viscosities of Crude Oil Mixtures. Internal Report,Marathon Oil Company, Houston, Texas (21 March 1985).
Estrada-Baltazar, A., Alvarado, J.F.J., Iglesias-Silva, G.A., and Barrufet,M.A. 1998a. Experimental Liquid Viscosities of Decane and Octane + Decane from298.15 K to 373.15 K and Up to 25 MPa. J. Chem. Eng. Data 43 (3): 441-446. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/je970233e.
Estrada-Baltazar, A., Iglesias-Silva, G.A., and Barrufet, M.A. 1998b. LiquidViscosities of Pentane and Pentane + Decane from 298.15 K to 373.15K and Up To 25 MPa. J. Chem. Eng. Data 43 (4): 601-604. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/je9702697.
Exxon Crude Oil Assays. ExxonMobil, http://www.exxonmobil.com/apps/crude_oil/index.html.
Gary, J.H., Handwerk, G.E., and Kaiser, M.J. 2007. Petroleum Refining:Technology and Economics, fifth edition, 262-263. Boca Raton, Florida: CRCPress.
Ha, H.Z. and Koppel, P. 2008. Accurately Predict Viscosity of SyncrudeBlends. Hydrocarbon Processing (Jul-08): 87-92.
Hernández-Galván, M.A. García-Sánchez, F., and Macías-Salinas, R. 2007.Liquid Viscosities of benzene, n-tetradecane, and benzene +n-tetradecane from 313 to 393 K and pressures up to 60 MPa:Experiment and modeling. Fluid Phase Equilibria 262 (1-2): 51-60.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fluid.2007.08.010.
Iglesias-Silva, G.A., Estrada-Baltazar, A., Hall, K.R., and Barrufet,M.A. 1999. Experimental Liquid Viscosity of Pentane + Octane + Decane Mixturesfrom 298.15 to 373.15 K up to 25 MPa. J. Chem. Eng. Data44 (6): 1304-1309. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/je990044r.
Irving, J.B. 1977a. Viscosity of Binary Liquid Mixtures: A Survey of MixtureEquations. Report 630, National Engineering Laboratory, Glasgow, Scotland(February 1977).
Irving, J.B. 1977b. Viscosity of Binary Liquid Mixtures: The Effectivenessof Mixture Equations. Report 631, National Engineering Laboratory, Glasgow,Scotland (February 1977).
Joshi, R.M. and Pegg, M.J. 2007. Flow properties of biodiesel fuel blends atlow temperature. Fuel 86 (1-2): 143-151. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2006.06.005.
Koval, E.J. 1963. A Method for Predicting the Performance of UnstableMiscible Displacement in Heterogeneous Media. SPE J. 3 (2):145-154; Trans., AIME, 228. SPE-450-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/450-PA.
Maxwell, J.B. 1950. Data Book On Hydrocarbons: Application to ProcessEngineering, Sec. 9. Princeton, New Jersey: D. Van Nostrand Company,Inc.
McAllister, E.W. ed. 2005. Pipeline Rules of Thumb Handbook, sixthedition, Chap. 12, 346. Oxford, UK: Elsevier (Gulf ProfessionalPublishing).
Orbey, H. and Sandler, S.I. 1993. The Prediction of the Viscosity of LiquidHydrocarbons and Their Mixtures as a Function of Temperature and Pressure.Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering 71 (June):437-446.
Parkash, S. 2003. Refining Processes Handbook, Chap. 11, 327-328.Oxford, UK: Elsevier (Gulf Professional Publishing).
Ramakrishnan, H.R., Khataniar, S. Dandekar, A.Y., Patil, S.L., Chukwu, G.A.,Kamath, V.A., Haslebacher, W.F., and Hackworth, J.H. 2003. Characterization ofGas-to-Liquid (GTL) and Alaska North Slope Crude (ANSC) Oil Blend Propertiesfor Flow Through the Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) by Density andViscosity Measurements. Petroleum Science and Technology 21(1-2): 301-314. http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/LFT-120016950.
Reid, R.C., Prausnitz, J.M., and Poling, B.E. 1987. The Properties ofGases and Liquids, fourth edition, 476. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
Riazi, M.R. 2005. Characterization and Properties of PetroleumFractions, Chap. 8. West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania: ASTM.
Roelands, C.J.A. 1966. Correlational Aspects of theViscosity-Temperature-Pressure Relationship of Lubricating Oils. PhD thesis,University of Delft, Delft, The Netherlands.
Shigemoto, N., Al-Maamari, R.S., Jibril, B.Y., and Hirayama, A. 2006. AStudy of the Effect of Gas Condensate on the Viscosity and Storage Stability ofOmani Heavy Crude Oil. Energy & Fuels 20 (6):2504-2508. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef060074h.
Shu, W.R. 1984. A Viscosity Correlation for Mixtures of Heavy Oil, Bitumen,and Petroleum Fractions. SPE J. 24 (3): 277-282.SPE-11280-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/11280-PA.
Tat, M.E. and Van Gerpen, J.H. 1999. The Kinematic Viscosity of Biodieseland Its Blends with Diesel Fuel. Journal of the American Oil Chemists'Society (JAOCS) 76 (12): No. J9166, 1511-1513.
Tat, M.E. and Van Gerpen, J.H. 2000. The Specific Gravity of Biodiesel andIts Blends with Diesel Fuel. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society(JAOCS) 77 (2): No. 9143, 115-119.
Tat, M.E. and Van Gerpen, J.H. 2002. Physical Properties and CompositionDetection of Biodiesel-Diesel Fuel Blends. Paper ASAE 02-6084 presented at theAmerican Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE) 2002 Annual Meeting, Chicago,Illinois, USA, 28-31 July.
UOP375-86 Calculation of UOP Characterization Factor and Estimation ofMolecular Weight of Petroleum Oils. 1986. West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania:ASTM.
Wallace, D. and Henry, D. 1987. A Correlation for Correcting the Viscosityof Solvent-Extracted Bitumen to a Solvent-Free Basis. AOSTRA J. Res. 3 (1987): 239-249.
Whitson, C.H. 1983. Characterizing Hydrocarbon Plus Fractions. SPE J. 23 (4): 683-693. SPE-12233-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/12233-PA.
Wu, J.W., Nhaesi, A.H., and Asfour, A.A. 1999. Viscometric Properties ofEight Binary Liquid n-Alkane Systems at 308.15 and 313.15 K.Fluid Phase Equilibria 164 (2): 285-293. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3812(99)00250-2.
Wu, J.W., Shan, Z., and Asfour, A.A. 1998. Viscometric Properties ofMulticomponent Liquid n-Alkane Systems. Fluid Phase Equilibria 143 (1-2): 263-274. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3812(97)00269-0.
Yuan, W., Hansen, A.C., Zhang, Q., and Tan, Z. 2005. Temperature-DependentKinematic Viscosity of Selected Biodiesel Fuels and Blends with Diesel Fuel.Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society (JAOCS) 82(3): No. J10974, 195-199.