Flow-Rate Estimation From Wellhead-Pressure and -Temperature Data
- Bulent Izgec (Chevron Energy Technology Company) | A. Rashid Hasan (University of Minnesota) | Dongqing Lin (North Dakota State University) | C. Shah Kabir (Chevron Energy Technology Company)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- February 2010
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 31 - 39
- 2010. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.3.2 Multiphase Flow, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 3.3 Well & Reservoir Surveillance and Monitoring, 5.6.3 Pressure Transient Testing, 2.2.2 Perforating, 5.6.11 Reservoir monitoring with permanent sensors, 5.9.2 Geothermal Resources, 4.6 Natural Gas, 5.6.4 Drillstem/Well Testing, 4.4.3 Mutiphase Measurement, 5.5.8 History Matching, 3.3.1 Production Logging, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating
- 7 in the last 30 days
- 1,898 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Flow-rate metering has a less-than-satisfactory track record in the industry. Modern sensors offer a solution to this vexing problem. This paper offers two methods for estimating flow rates, predominantly from temperature data to complement rate measurements. One approach consists of modeling the entire wellbore and requires both wellhead pressure (WHP) and wellhead temperature (WHT), whereas the other uses transient temperature formulation at a single point in the wellbore to compute the total production rate.
In the entire-wellbore approach, we use a wellbore model handling steady flow of fluids but unsteady-state heat transfer to estimate production rate, given wellhead pressure and temperature. The model rigorously accounts various thermal properties of the fluid and the formation, including Joule-Thompson (J-T) (Thompson and Joule 1853) heating and/or cooling. In the single-point approach, a single-point-temperature measurement made anywhere in the wellbore, including at the wellhead, is needed to estimate the mass rate at a given timestep. The method entails full transient treatment of the coupled fluid- and heat-flow problem at hand.
Examples from both gas and oil wells are shown to illustrate the application of the proposed methodology. Good correspondence between the measured and calculated results demonstrates the robustness of the proposed methods. These methods provide important rate information in various settings. For instance, in mature assets they can fill in the information void between tests or replace suspect rate data. Even well-instrumented wells can benefit because the methods can act as a verification tool, particularly in assets where integrated asset models are used to fine tune rate allocation. In addition, the single-point approach can provide the much needed rate information during pressure-transient tests.
|File Size||574 KB||Number of Pages||9|
Ayala, L.F. 2006. On the non-ideality of hydrocarbon fluids: Implicationsfor natural gas engineering-Part B. E-Journal of Reservoir Engineering 1 (1): 1-9.
Brodie, A.D., Allan, J.C., and Hill, G. 1995. Operating Experience With ESP's andPermanent Downhole Flowmeters in Wytch Farm Extended-Reach Wells. J. PetTech 47 (10): 902-906. SPE-28528-PA. doi:10.2118/28528-PA.
Busaidi, K. and Bhaskaran, H. 2003. Multiphase Flow Meters: Experienceand Assessment in PDO. Paper SPE 84505 presented at the SPE AnnualTechnical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 5-8 October. doi:10.2118/84505-MS.
Dranchuk, P.M. and Abou-Kassem, J.H. 1975. Calculation of Z-factors fornatural gases using equation of state. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 14 (3): 34-36.
Hasan, A.R. and Kabir, C.S. 1999. A Simplified Model for Oil/Water Flowin Vertical and Deviated Wellbores. SPE Prod & Fac 14 (1): 56-62. SPE-54131-PA. doi: 10.2118/54131-PA.
Hasan, A.R., Kabir, C.S., and Lin, D. 2005. Analytic Wellbore-Temperature Modelfor Transient Gas-Well Testing. SPE Res Eval & Eng 8 (1): 240-247. SPE-84288-PA. doi: 10.2118/84288-PA.
Hasan, A.R., Kabir, C.S., and Wang, X. 2009. A Robust Steady-State Model forFlowing-Fluid Temperature in Complex Wells. SPE Prod & Oper 24 (2): 269-276. SPE-109765-PA. doi: 10.2118/109765-PA.
Izgec, B., Cribbs, M.E., Pace, S.V., Zhu, D., and Kabir, C.S. 2007b. Placement of Permanent DownholePressure Sensors in Reservoir Surveillance. SPE Prod & Oper 24 (1): 87-95. SPE-107268-PA. doi: 10.2118/107268-PA.
Izgec, B., Kabir, C.S., Zhu, D., and Hasan, A.R. 2007a. Transient Fluid and Heat FlowModeling in Coupled Wellbore/Reservoir Systems. SPE Res Eval &Eng 10 (3): 294-301. SPE-102070-PA. doi:10.2118/102070-PA.
Johnson, D., Sierra, J., and Gualtieri, D. 2006. Successful Flow Profiling of GasWells Using Distributed Temperature Sensing Data. Paper SPE 103097presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference, San Antonio, Texas, USA,24-27 September. doi: 10.2118/103097-MS.
Kabir, C.S. and Young, N.J. 2004. Handling Production-Data Uncertaintyin History Matching: The Meren Reservoir Case Study. SPE Res Eval &Eng 7 (2): 123-131. SPE-87823-PA. doi: 10.2118/87823-PA.
Kabir, C.S., Hasan, A.R., Jordan, D.L., and Wang, X. 1996. A Wellbore/Reservoir Simulator forTesting Gas Wells in High-Temperature Reservoirs. SPE Form Eval 11 (2): 128-134. SPE-28402-PA. doi: 10.2118/28402-PA.
Kouba, G., Wang, S., Gomez, L., Mohan, R., and Shoham, O. 2006. Review of the State-of-the-ArtGas/Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone (GLCC) Technology--Field Applications. PaperSPE 104256 presented at the International Oil & Gas Conference andExhibition in China, Beijing, China, 5-7 December. doi: 10.2118/104256-MS.
Kragas, T.K., Johansen, E.S., Hassanali, H., and Da Costa, S.L. 2003. Installation and Data Analysis of aDownhole, Fiber Optic Flowmeter at Mahogany Field, Offshore Trinidad. PaperSPE 81018 presented at the SPE Latin American and Caribbean PetroleumEngineering Conference, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, 27-30 April. doi:10.2118/81018-MS.
Kragas, T.K., van der Spek, A., and Al-Hashmi, K.M. 2002. Field Trial of a Downhole, FiberOptic, Two-Phase Flowmeter in PDO's Nimr Field. Paper SPE 78306 presentedat the European Petroleum Conference, Aberdeen, 29-31 October. doi:10.2118/78306-MS.
Liu, K.T., Canfield, D.R., and Conley, J.T. 1988. Application of a Mass Flowmeter forAllocation Measurement of Crude Oil Production. SPE Prod Eng 3 (4): 633-636. SPE-15394-PA. doi: 10.2118/15394-PA.
Oglesby, K.D., Mehdizadeh, P., and Rodger, G.J. 2006. Portable Multiphase ProductionTester for High-Water-Cut Wells. Paper SPE 103087 presented at the SPEAnnual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 24-27September. doi: 10.2118/103087-MS.
Ouyang, L.-B. and Belanger, D. 2006. Flow Profiling by DistributedTemperature Sensor (DTS) System--Expectation and Reality. SPE Prod &Oper 21 (1): 269-281. SPE-90541-PA. doi: 10.2118/90541-PA.
Pinguet, B.G., Roux, G., and Hopman, N. 2006. Field Experience in MultiphaseGas-Well Testing: The Benefit of the Combination of Venturi and Gamma RayFraction Meter. Paper SPE 103223 presented at the SPE Annual TechnicalConference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 24-27 September. doi:10.2118/103223-MS.
Ramey, H.J. 1962. Wellbore HeatTransmission. J. Pet Tech 14 (4): 427-435;Trans., AIME, 225. SPE-96-PA. doi: 10.2118/96-PA.
Retnanto, A., Weimer, B., Kontha, I.N.H., Triongko, H., Azim, A., and Kyaw,H.A. 2001. Production OptimizationUsing Multiphase Well Testing: A Case Study From East Kalimantan,Indonesia. Paper SPE 71556 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conferenceand Exhibition, New Orleans, 30 September-3 October. doi: 10.2118/71556-MS.
Thompson, W. and Joule, J.P. 1853. On the Thermal Effects ofFluids in Motion. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 143:357-365. doi:10.1098/rstl.1853.0014.
Tibold, M.P., Simonian, S., Chawla, M., and Akbar, M. 2000. Well Testing with a PermanentMonitoring System. Paper SPE 63079 presented at the SPE Annual TechnicalConference and Exhibition, Dallas, 1-4 October. doi: 10.2118/63079-MS.
Wang, X., Lee, J., Thigpen, B., Vachon, G., Poland, S., and Norton, D. 2008.Modeling Flow Profile UsingDistributed Temperature Sensor (DTS) System. Paper SPE 111790 presented atthe Intelligent Energy Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam, 25-27 January.doi: 10.2118/111790-MS.
Warren, P.B., Al-Dusari, K.H., and Al-Abduljabbar, J.M. 2003. Field-Testing a Compact MultiphaseFlow Meter--Offshore Saudi Arabia. Paper SPE 81560 presented at the MiddleEast Oil Show, Bahrain, 9-12 June. doi: 10.2118/81560-MS.
Warren, P.B., Hussain, S., and Ghamdi, S. 2001. Background and Operational Experienceof Multiphase Metering in the Safaniya Field--Offshore Saudi Arabia. PaperSPE 71534 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, NewOrleans, 30 September-3 October. doi: 10.2118/71534-MS.
Webster, M., Richardson, S., Gabard-Cuoq, C., Fitzgerald, J.B., andStephenson, K.E. 2006. WellSurveillance With a Permanent Downhole Multiphase Flowmeter. SPE Prod& Oper 21 (3) 388-393. SPE-90024-PA. doi:10.2118/90024-PA.